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[en] Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread. (Author)
[en] Complete text of publication follows. The burst of early work on the magnetism of the Apollo samples was followed by a quiescent period until recently. It had been thought that the strong magnetization in samples, whose ages ranged from approximately 3.65 to 3.9 Ga, was evidence of a lunar dynamo at that time, and possibly until 3.4Ga.. New results have yielded evidence for (1) an early dynamo at ∼4.2 Ga giving surface fields of the order of μT's (2) a better understanding of Shock Remanent Magnetization (3) and new paleointensity determinations. Reanalysis of the lunar paleomagnetic data has been carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and comparison of the AF demagnetization characteristics of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) with other possible mechanisms of origin. This work suggests that although the NRM of many samples is not likely to be a primary Thermal Remanent Magnetization (TRM), acquired when the samples initially cooled on the lunar surface, a number of Mare Basalts do appear to carry a primary NRM. The results are consistent with the suggestions of Stephenson, Collinson, and Runcorn, (1976) that a lunar dynamo generated a lunar surface field, which weakened by about an order of magnitude from its peak ∼3.9 to 3.4 Ga.
[en] A completely new analysis has been carried out on the data from the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma ray spectrometer experiments. The components of the continuum background have been estimated. The elements Th, K, Fe and Mg give useful results; results for Ti are significant only for a few high Ti regions. Errors are given, and the results are checked by other methods. Concentrations are reported for about sixty lunar regions; the ground track has been subdivided in various ways. The borders of the maria seem well-defined chemically, while the distribution of KREEP is broad. This wide distribution requires emplacement of KREEP before the era of mare formation. Its high concentration in western mare soils seems to require major vertical mixing