Results 1 - 10 of 560
Results 1 - 10 of 560. Search took: 0.03 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Highlights: • The plant TOS motif core sequence interacting with Raptor was identified in ATG13 as well as S6K1 of the Arabidopsis. • Autophagy response was observed when the plant TOS core sequence was deleted from AtATG13. • Phosphorylation of AtATG13 was reduced significantly when the plant TOS core sequence was deleted. In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that a stretch of amino-acid sequences identified from Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) provided a plant version of the TOS (TOR-signaling) motif, mediating the interaction with the Raptor protein in the TOR (Target of Rapamycin) kinase complex. Here we report the presence of same element in Arabidopsis Autophagy related-13 (AtATG13) protein, which is a key component of the plant autophagy response. Its composition is nearly identical to that found in the AtS6K1 in the five-amino-acid core sequence, and the presence of this five-amino-acid sequence was found to be essential for its interaction with the Raptor protein. A mutant AtATG13 protein lacking this five-amino-acid element conferred an elevated autophagy response and could not effectively phosphorylated by TOR kinase activity, demonstrating its role in mediating the TOR signaling to the components that carry it as a possible TOS motif. A ligand-binding simulation model using the MM-PBSA method indicates that both of the five-amino-acid sequence elements of AtS6K1 and AtATG13 have strong probability of making stable interface with the Raptor binding pocket, corroborating our proposition for this element as the plant TOS motif.
[en] Highlights: • The expression level of ACC2 is up-regulated in the mutant of BPG2. • GUN1 and GUN5-mediated plastid signals play a role in the upregulation of ACC2 in the bpg2 mutant. • The level of ACC2 is markedly increased in a GUN-dependent manner under plastid gene expression inhibitor treatment. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 2 (ACC2) is a nuclear DNA-encoded and plastid-targeted enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. ACC2 improves plant growth and development when chloroplast translation is impaired. However, little is known about the upstream signals that regulate ACC2. Here, through analyzing the transcriptome changes in brz-insensitive-pale green (bpg) 2-2, a pale-green mutant with impaired chloroplast gene expression resulting from loss of the BPG2 function, we found that the level of ACC2 was significantly up-regulated. Through performing genetic analysis, we further demonstrated that loss of the GENOMES UNCOUPLED 1 (GUN1) or GUN5 function partly perturbed the up-regulation of ACC2 in the bpg2-2 mutant, whereas ABA INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4)-function-loss had no clear effect on the ACC2 expression. Furthermore, when plants were treated with plastid translation inhibitors, such as lincomycin and spectinomycin, the ACC2 transcriptional level was also markedly increased in a GUN-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results suggested that the GUN-involved plastid-to-nucleus retrograde communication played a role in regulating ACC2 in Arabidopsis.
[en] Highlights: • Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) as a photosynthetic parameter in physiology. • Real-time monitoring of photosynthesis behaviors under light condition. • PRI possesses a strong correlation with qZ rather than qE. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is the most important photoprotective system in higher plants. NPQ can be divided into several steps according to the timescale of relaxation of chlorophyll fluorescence after reaching a steady state (i.e., the fast phase, qE; middle phase, qZ or qT; and slow phase, qI). The dissipation of excess energy as heat during the xanthophyll cycle, a large component of NPQ, is detectable during the fast to middle phase (sec to min). Although thermal dissipation is primarily investigated using indirect methods such as chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, such analyses require dark adaptation or the application of a saturating pulse during measurement, making it difficult to continuously monitor this process. Here, we designed an unconventional technique for real-time monitoring of changes in thylakoid lumen pH (as reflected by changes in xanthophyll pigment content) based on the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which we estimated by measuring light-driven leaf reflectance at 531 nm. We analyzed two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, npq1 (unable to convert violaxanthin to zeaxanthin due to inhibited violaxanthin de-epoxidase [VDE] activity) and npq4 (lacking PsbS protein), to uncover the regulator of the PRI. The PRI was variable in wild-type and npq4 plants, but not in npq1, indicating that the PRI is related to xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy quenching (qZ) rather than the linear electron transport rate or NPQ. In situ lumen pH substitution using a pH-controlled buffer solution caused a shift in PRI. These results suggest that the PRI reflects only xanthophyll cycle conversion and is therefore a useful parameter for monitoring thylakoid lumen pH (reflecting VDE activity) in vivo.
[en] Highlights: • BcMF20 was a three-fingered protein and close to the four-fingered proteins of petunia. • The inhibition of BcMF20 led to fewer and lower rate in pollen germination. • The inhibition of BcMF20 led to lower rate in fruit setting. • BcMF20 may work in genetic pathways to act on proliferation of tapetal cells. • BcMF20 helps keep the normal development of pollens. Brassica campestris Male Fertility 20 (BcMF20) is a typical zinc-finger transcription factor that was previously isolated from flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). By applying expression pattern analysis, it can be known that BcMF20 was specifically and strongly expressed in tapetum and pollen, beginning from the uninucleate stage, and was maintained during the mature-pollen stage. As BcMF20 was highly conserved in Cruciferae, it can be indicated that this zinc-finger transcription factor is important during the growth of Cruciferae. In this study, 12 C2H2-type zinc-finger TFs which shared high homology with BcMF20 were found from NCBI via BLAST. A new molecular phylogenetic tree was constructed by the comparison between BcMF20 and these 12 C2H2-type zinc-finger TFs with NJ method. By analyzing this phylogenetic tree, the evolution of BcMF20 was discussed. Then, antisense RNA technology was applied in the transgenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana to get the deletion mutants of BcMF20, so that its function during the pollen development can be identified. The results showed: BcMF20 are in the same clade with three genes from Arabidopsis. The inhibition of BcMF20 expression led to smaller amounts of and lower rate in germination of pollen and lower rate in fruit setting in certain transgenetic plants. This also led to the complete collapse of pollen grains. By SEM and TEM, pollen morphology and anther development processes were observed. In the middle uninucleate microspore stage, a relatively thin or even no primexine was formed in microspores. This may result in the malformation of the pollen wall and finally cause the deformity of pollens. Above all, it can be indicated that BcMF20 may act as a part of regulation mechanisms of TAZ1 and MS1. Together they play a role in a genetic pathway in the tapetum to act on proliferation of tapetal cells and keep the normal development of pollens.
[en] Imbibed seeds monitor environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under appropriate conditions. In Arabidopsis thaliana, high temperature (HT) induces secondary seed dormancy, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that the abi5-1 mutant was insensitive to high temperature, whereas plants overexpressing ABI5 displayed sensitivity. We then identified ABA-insensitive five-binding protein 2 (AFP2), which interacts with ABI5 and is involved in HT-induced secondary seed dormancy. Under HT stress, the loss-of-function afp2 mutant showed lower seeds germination frequency, reversely, AFP2 overexpressing lines (OE-AFP2) showed high germination frequency. Similar to the abi5 mutant, the crossed OE-AFP2 abi5 or afp2 abi5 lines showed high germination under HT, suggesting that ABI5 is epistatic to AFP2. SOM is reported to negatively regulate seeds germination by altering GA/ABA metabolism, here we found that AFP2 and ABI5 altered SOM transcription. Specifically, overexpressing AFP2 suppressed SOM transcription, resulting in high expression of GA biosynthesis-related genes and low expression of ABA biosynthesis-related genes, ultimately promoting seed germination under HT. Thus, our data demonstrate that AFP2 is a novel regulator to control HT-induced secondary seed dormancy through ABI5 and SOM.
[en] Highlights: • The Arabidopsis CAR1 resistance gene in ecotype En-2 specifies resistance to CaMV. • Unlike most CaMV strains, NY8153 is able to infect En-2 systemically. • We now show that gene 1 of CaMV strain NY8153 overcomes resistance of CAR1. • Thus, gene 1 of other CaMV strains must either be defective of elicit plant defenses. Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype En-2 is resistant to several strains of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), including strain W260, but is susceptible to strain NY8153. Resistance in En-2 is conditioned by a single, semi-dominant gene called CAR1. We constructed several recombinant infectious clones between W260 and NY8153 and evaluated their capability to infect En-2. This analysis showed that the capacity of NY8153 to break resistance in En-2 was conditioned by mutations within the CaMV gene 1, a gene that encodes a protein dedicated to cell-to-cell movement (P1), and conversely, that P1 of W260 is responsible for eliciting the plant defense response. A previous study had shown that P6 of W260 was responsible for overcoming resistance in Arabidopsis ecotype Tsu-0 and that P6 of CaMV strain CM1841 was responsible for triggering resistance. The present study now shows that a second gene of CaMV is targeted by Arabidopsis for plant immunity.
[en] Highlights: • Overexpression of PtABCC1 enhanced Hg tolerance in Arabidopsis and poplar. • Overexpression of PtABCC1 enhanced Hg accumulation in Arabidopsis and poplar. • PtABCC1 was the first identified poplar ABC transporter for phytoremediation of Hg. Mercury (Hg) is a highly biotoxic heavy metal that contaminates the environment. Phytoremediation is a green technology for environmental remediation and is used to clean up Hg contaminated soil in recent years. In this study, we isolated an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene PtABCC1 from Populus trichocarpa and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis and poplar. The transgenic plants conferred higher Hg tolerance than wild type (WT) plants, and overexpression of PtABCC1 could lead to 26–72% or 7–160% increase of Hg accumulation in Arabidopsis or poplar plants, respectively. These results demonstrated that PtABCC1 plays a crucial role in enhancing tolerance and accumulation to Hg in plants, which provides a promising way for phytoremediation of Hg contamination.
[en] The purpose of this study is to characterize genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing energy (gamma-rays) of acute irradiation and elucidate signalling mechanisms via functional analysis of isolated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Recent improvements in DNA microarray technologies and bioinformatics have made it possible to look for common features of ionizing radiation-responsive genes and their regulatory regions. It has produced massive quantities of gene expression and other functional genomics data, and its application will increase in plant genomics. In this study, we used oligonucleotide microarrays to detect the Arabidopsis genes expressed differentially by a gamma-irradiation during the vegetative (VT, 21 DAG) and reproductive (RT, 28 DAG) stages. Wild-type (Ler) Arabidopsis was irradiated with gamma-rays with 100 and 800 Gy doses. Among the 21,500 genes represented in the Agilent chip, approximately 13,500 (∼61.4 %) responsive genes to ν -irradiation were expressed with signal intensity greater than 192 when compared to the combined control (non-irradiated vegetative and reproductive pool). Expression patterns of several radiation inducible genes were confirmed by RT-PCR and Northern blotting. Our microarray results may contribute to an overall understanding of the type and quantities of genes that are expressed by an acute gamma-irradiation. In addition, to investigate the oxidative damage caused by irradiation, RT-PCR analysis for the expression of antioxidant isoenzyme genes, and a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) observation for visualizing the H2O2 scavenging activity in leaves were applied
[en] Highlights: • Fourteen putative PP2C-A-like phosphatases were identified in Brassica rapa. • BrHAB2a was verified as a putative negative regulator of ABA signaling. • The inhibition of BrHAB2a by ABA and its receptors was successfully recapitulated. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling is a vital physiological step that is used by many land plants to fight against environmental stress. As components of the linear ABA signaling pathway, clade A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C-As) are mainly inhibited by PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE1/PYR1-LIKE/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (PYLs)-type receptors upon their binding to ABA. Here, we show that the genome of Brassica rapa encodes 14 putative clade A PP2C-like proteins (BrPP2C-As). Two of these BrPP2C-As, Bra025964 and Bra016595, show high similarity to the HAB2 (Homology to ABI2) protein in Arabidopsis. RNAseq data reveal that nearly all BrPP2C-As, like BrHAB2a (Bra025964) and BrHAB2b (Bra016595), were highly expressed in at least one tissue. Overexpression of BrHAB2a conferred ABA insensitivity to Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Furthermore, the phosphatase activity of BrHAB2a could be inhibited by AtPYL1 or BrPYL1 in the presence of ABA. Overall, these results suggest that BrHAB2a is a functional PP2C-A like protein phosphotase and a key component of ABA signaling in Brassica rapa.
[en] Vernalization is a pivotal stage for some plants involving many epigenetic changes during cold exposure. In Arabidopsis, an essential step in vernalization for further flowering is successful silence the potent floral repressor Flowering Locus C (FLC) by repressing histone mark. AtVal1 is a multi-function protein containing five domains that participate into many recognition processes and is validated to recruit the repress histone modifier PHD-PRC2 complex and interact with components of the ASAP complex target to the FLC nucleation region through recognizing a cis element known as CME (cold memory element) by its plant-specific B3 domain. Here, we determine the crystal structure of the B3 domain in complex with Sph/RY motif in CME. Our structural analysis reveals the specific DNA recognition by B3 domain, combined with our in vitro experiments, we provide the structural insight into the important implication of AtVAL1-B3 domain in flowering process.