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[en] Previous work has identified two patterns of arthropod recovery after insecticide applications to arable crops: dispersal-mediated recolonisation from untreated areas (Type A) and recolonisation within treated areas assisted by reduced predation (Type B). In this study, connectivity between field-edge habitats was manipulated using barriers to investigate whether a crop edge and adjacent hedgerow influence recolonisation of an insecticide-treated crop by surface-active Collembola and other arthropods. Collembola recovery patterns differed among closely-related taxa. Epigeic collembolan and macroarthropod communities were more diverse and abundant, and rates of artificial prey predation were higher, in sprayed crop areas connected to both hedgerow and unsprayed crop edge than in sprayed areas connected to the unsprayed edge alone. These findings indicate that effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of field recolonisation may depend on adjoining field margin habitats. An assumption in risk assessment that unsprayed crop edges assist population recovery within treated areas is not supported. - Collembola recolonisation differs among species; effectiveness of unsprayed crop edges as sources of arthropod recolonisation may depend on adjacent habitat
[en] A great many living beings, such as aquatics and arthropods, are equipped with highly sensitive flow sensors to help them survive in challenging environments. These sensors are excellent sources of inspiration for developing application-driven artificial flow sensors with high sensitivity and performance. This paper reviews the bio-inspirations on flow sensing in nature and the bio-mimicking efforts to emulate such sensing mechanisms in recent years. The natural flow sensing systems in aquatics and arthropods are reviewed to highlight inspirations at multiple levels such as morphology, sensing mechanism and information processing. Biomimetic hair flow sensors based on different sensing mechanisms and fabrication technologies are also reviewed to capture the recent accomplishments and to point out areas where further progress is necessary. Biomimetic flow sensors are still in their early stages. Further efforts are required to unveil the sensing mechanisms in the natural biological systems and to achieve multi-level bio-mimicking of the natural system to develop their artificial counterparts. (topical review)
[en] Inokosteron-26-oic acid was coupled to thyroglobulin in aqueous pyridine by a watersoluble carbodiimide. After exhaustive dialysis and gel filtration on Sephadex G-25 in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate, a coupling ratio of 164 haptens per molecule of thyroglobulin was determined. In all three animals injected with the conjugate, ecdysone-binding antibodies were detected. After one booster injection the antiserum could be diluted 1:5000 (1:4000, or 1:2000) in order to get a 50% binding of [3H]ecdysone. The dissociation constant was calculated as 5.8 x 10-10 mol/l. The antiserum has a greater affinity for ecdysone and 22-isoecdysone than for all other ecdysteroids and steroids tested. (orig.)
[de]Inokosteron-26-saeure wurde in waessriger Pyridinloesung mit einem wasserloeslichen Carbodiimid an Thyroglobulin gekoppelt. Die Kopplungsrate betrug 164 Haptene pro Molekuel Thyroglobulin. Alle 3 immunisierten Kaninchen bildeten Antikoerper gegen das Konjugat. Nach einer booster-Injektion konnte das Serum 1:5000 (1:4000, bzw. 1:2000) verduennt werden, um 50% Bindung von [3H]Ecdyson zu erhalten. Die Dissoziationskonstante betraegt 5,8 x 10-10 mol/l. Das Antiserum hat eine groessere Affinitaet fuer Ecdyson und 22-Iso-Ecdyson als fuer alle anderen getesteten Ecdysteroide und Steroide. (orig.)
[en] To evaluate the relationship between internal derangement and osteoarthrosis in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One hundred and six MR images of TMJs in 53 patients were evaluated. Disc displacements and osseous changes of the TMJs were assessed. Lateral and rotational disc displacements were also evaluated on coronal images. No significant differences in the frequency of osseous changes of the TMJs between disc displacement with reduction and disc displacement without reduction groups were found. The erosion of the condylar head and the sclerosis of the articular eminence were more frequent in the internal derangement group than in the no disc displacement group. The flattening was the most frequently observed osseous change of both the condylar head and articular eminence. The relationship between internal derangement and osteoarthrosis is obscure, but it is thought that both disorders adversely affect each other.
[en] Weeds are considered a limiting factor of crop production. Simultaneously, these non-crop plants are a portion of the agricultural ecosystem and play an essential role as viable habitat for many organisms, including bio-control agents. Utilizing the quadrate method, sugarcane, fodder, wheat and mustard croplands were sampled for one year to determine the weed flora and arthropods living among it. Twenty weed species and eight major arthropod orders were found to be present. The majority of the weed plants were broad-leaved, while some were grass-like. A review of literature on Central Punjab weeds uncovered depicted a considerable change in the weed flora over few decades. This could be related to the intensive and extensive farming in the area, which has this increased over the few decades along with the construction of an extensive irrigation canal system. These alterations may have caused drastic changes in the soil structure and climate of the region. Most of the phytophagous arthropod species used weed plants as food. In turn, these were fed upon by a few zoophagous arthropod species that also utilized the weeds for shelter and oviposition. Thus, weeds have a specific role within the agro-ecosystem by supporting local biodiversity. (author)
[en] To determine the clinical features and demographic profile of the patients having papular urticaria. Individuals of all age groups and either gender either suspected of or having definite history of insect bite were included in the study. A specially-designed proforma was filled for each patient separately. The proforma included demographic features, information regarding clothing and sleeping habits, personal or family history of atopy and clinical patterns of the lesions. Computer programme SPSS 10 was used to manage and analyze the data. Out of 280 patients, 201 (71.8%) were children upto 12 years of age, 178 (63.6%) were males, 91 (32.5%) had atopy, 194 (69.3%) were non-locals, 212 (75.7%) came from urban/peri-urban areas and 173 (61.8%) presented during May-August. Lesions were present over exposed parts of the body in 36 (12.9%), arranged in groups in 152 (54.3%) and were papular urticaria in 185 (66.1%) patients. Children, adult males, non-locals and those belonging to urban/peri-urban areas are more vulnerable to papular urticaria in a particular region. Papular and urticarial lesions arranged in groups over both exposed as well as covered body parts of a single patient is the most common clinical pattern. (author)
[en] Faunal composition of the coprophagous beetles was studied in four sampling sites in the northern area from the Serrania de La Lindosa in Guaviare, testing diversity values and structure of the assemblages that were compared with other research done in any other areas of Biogeographical Guyana. The results showed low diversity values, typical of areas with low availability of resources and extreme climatic conditions and showed the predominance of species with nesting digging habit over resident and rolling species. The fauna composition presents a large number of common species with any other areas of the region, as occur as other affinities found for other taxa that support the links of these Colombian mountains to the Guyanese and Brazilian shields.
[en] From 2014 to 2016, individuals of the principal non-target arthropod (NTA) species in a field of Bt maize expressing the Cry1Ac protein (Bt38) were compared to those in a control field of the corresponding non-transformed near isoline (Z58). For all 3 years, the population dynamics and biodiversity of NTAs were analyzed to determine if any differences might be attributable to the genetically modified (GM) maize being evaluated. The main NTAs in these fields were Aphidoidea, Pentatomidae,Araneae, and Coccinellidae. Temporal variation in NTA diversity across sample dates within a year showed no significant differences between the Bt maize and the non-Bt maize field in the total number of individuals of the dominant arthropod species per 25 plants, the Shannon index (H), Pielou index (J), Simpson index (D), and Bray-Curtis index. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on individuals, H, J, D, and Bray-Curtis index of NTAs, and these parameters were identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. These results provide further evidence of the lack of ecological impact of GM maize.
[en] To describe the pattern of various shoulder abnormalities with an associated superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesion type II using magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography, and to assess the clinical significance of the associated abnormalities. A retrospective review of the MR arthrographic findings of 92 cases of a shoulder with an arthroscopically confirmed SLAP lesion type II was performed. The MR arthrography images were reviewed and analyzed. MR arthrographic analysis noted the presence of a rotator cuff abnormality, acromioclavicular arthritis, adhesive capsulitis, glenohumeral arthritis, a labral abnormality besides the SLAP lesion, and a paralabral cyst. The patients with SLAP lesions were divided into two age groups: those over 40 years of age and those forty years old or younger. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of age on the various shoulder abnormalities with associated SLAP lesion. Of the 92 SLAP lesions type II, there were 7 cases (8%) of isolated SLAP lesions without any associated any shoulder abnormality. Eighty-five (92%) SLAP lesions were associated with various shoulder abnormalities including rotator cuff tendinosis (30/92, 33%), partial-thickness tear (36/92, 39%), full-thickness tear (2/92, 2%), acromioclavicular arthritis (46/92, 50%), adhesive capsulitis (7/92, 8%), glenohumeral arthritis (15/92, 16%), labral abnormality (26/92, 28%) and paralabral cyst (7/92, 8%). The SLAP lesions (60/92, 65%) in patients over forty years of age were accompanied by a significantly high number of rotator cuff abnormalities (ρ < 0.001), glenohumeral osteoarthritis (ρ = 0.001), and acromioclavicular osteoarthritis (ρ < 0.001). In contrast, the SLAP lesions (32/92, 35%) in patients forty years old or younger had a significantly high number of anterior or posterior labral lesions (ρ < 0.001). Isolated SLAP lesions type II without other associated shoulder abnormalities are uncommon, and the age of the patient influences the prevalence of other shoulder abnormalities associated with SLAP lesions. In addition, MR arthrography can help detect shoulder abnormalities accompanying the SLAP lesions