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[en] Ion channeling along the  direction in high-quality single crystals of (Y/Er)Ba2Cu3O7-x revealed an abrupt change in displace-ments in the a-b plane of the Cu and O atoms at the superconducting transition, Tc; normal 'Debye-like' vibrations were found for the Y/Er and Ba atoms. The anomalous change in Cu-O displacements was found to shift directly with stoichiometry-induced changes in Tc, implying a direct link between the observed phonon anomaly and the superconducting transition. Recent measurements of ion-channeling along the  axis in (Bi1.7Pb0.3)Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox single-crystals revealed a similar change at Tc, suggesting that this phonon anomaly is a general feature of high-Tc superconductivity. In order to identify more specifically the crystallographic directions and displacement amplitudes associated with the anomalous phonon behavior, axial channeling scans using RBS, as well as characteristic x-ray production, were taken at several temperatures between 30 and 300K along the  and  directions of YBa2Cu3O7-x single crystals. Twins present in the specimens, and the existing static atomic displacements present along these directions, caused the channeling to be poorer along these axes compared to the (001) direction. Also, a much stronger dependence of the minimum yield on depth was observed. However, since only one twin variant generally dominated over sufficiently wide areas of the specimens, reasonably good (approx 10 percent) minimum yields could be obtained along the appropriate  axis, and detwinned crystals produced good results along . (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs
[en] The microscopic dynamics of hydration water exhibits some universal features that do not depend on the nature of the hydrated surface. We show that the hydration level dependence of the dynamic transition in the mean squared atomic displacements measured by means of elastic neutron scattering is qualitatively similar for hydration water in inorganic and organic hosts. The difference is that the former are rigid, whereas the dynamics of the latter can be enhanced by the motions of the hydration water. The overall hydration level appears to be the main parameter governing the magnitude of the mean squared atomic displacements in the hydration water, irrespective of the details of the hydrated host.
[en] Highlights: • The microstructure changes of P92 steel after Fe13+ ion irradiation to a dose level of 1.62 dpa is characterized. • Plenty of rod-like precipitates are observed in irradiated samples. • Cr2(C, N) precipitates are confirmed using EDX-SAED analysis. • Cr content in matrix has a great influence on the nucleation of Cr2(C, N) precipitates.
[en] Mechanism is key to understanding the reliability and applicability of materials test reactor data to in-service behaviour. Here we review the historic understanding of dimensional change, drawing out the prima facie inadequacies of the standard model, and describing additional mechanisms (buckle, ruck and tuck) based on basal shear during radiation. Finally, we summarise new findings that vacancy aggregation into lines which heal and contract the basal layers is more credible now than appeared to be the case 10 years ago and that it can also give rise to ramps connecting graphite layers. (authors)
[en] Displacement rate changes are reflected in a variety of explicit and implicit ways in the parameters governing the void formation rate. The nodal line-critical point formalism of Poincare is used to analyze these changes and provide guidance for experimental studies.
[en] Irradiation creep beyond the transient regime was investigated for various silicon carbide (SiC) materials. Here, the materials examined included polycrystalline or monocrystalline high-purity SiC, nanopowder sintered SiC, highly crystalline and near-stoichiometric SiC fibers (including Hi-Nicalon Type S, Tyranno SA3, isotopically-controlled Sylramic and Sylramic-iBN fibers), and a Tyranno SA3 fiber–reinforced SiC matrix composite fabricated through a nano-infiltration transient eutectic phase process. Neutron irradiation experiments for bend stress relaxation tests were conducted at irradiation temperatures ranging from 430 to 1180 °C up to 30 dpa with initial bend stresses of up to ~1 GPa for the fibers and ~300 MPa for the other materials. Initial bend stress in the specimens continued to decrease from 1 to 30 dpa. Analysis revealed that (1) the stress exponent of irradiation creep above 1 dpa is approximately unity, (2) the stress normalized creep rate is ~1 × 10"–"7 [dpa"–"1 MPa"–"1] at 430–750 °C for the range of 1–30 dpa for most polycrystalline SiC materials, and (3) the effects on irradiation creep of initial microstructures—such as grain boundary, crystal orientation, and secondary phases—increase with increasing irradiation temperature
[en] It is shown theoretically and experimentally that the transformation of modes by an astigmatic π/2 converter is invariant with respect to the input-beam displacement and tilt. The possibility is considered of using this property for manipulating microobjects and simultaneous generation of Laguerre-Gaussian modes of different orders with the help of the same astigmatic π/2 converter. (laser modes and beams)
[en] The effects of intracascade clustering and recombination in radiation damage have been considered previously in semiquantitative calculations involving vacancy accumulation at voids, within the concept of production bias. To model void swelling and microstructural evolution quantitatively, similar effects on dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth have to be considered. In this regard, at elevated temperatures (such as in the peak-swelling temperature regime), the concentration of freely migrating vacancies is much higher than that of the interstitials, owing to the evaporation from the primary vacancy clusters (i.e. those produced by intracascade clustering). It is not immediately obvious how the dislocations can be net interstitials sinks, and hence that the observed nucleation and growth of the interstitial loops at elevated temperatures can be correctly predicted as in the conventional theory. To address these basic questions, a rate theory model is formulated in this paper, which describes the dislocation climb and loop growth in the presence of intracascade primary clusters. Within this model, conservation equations for the concentrations and average radii of the two kinds of primary cluster are derived, and the corresponding steady-state concentrations and average radii are calculated. From this, the dislocation climb velocity and interstitial loop growth rate are calculated. On the basis of the results of this calculation, some of the basic questions of production bias are discussed. (Author)
[en] We use elastic neutron scattering to demonstrate that a sharp increase in the mean-squared atomic displacements, commonly observed in hydrated proteins above 200 K and often referred to as the dynamical transition, is present in the hydrated state of both native and denatured lysozyme. A direct comparison of the native and denatured protein thus confirms that the presence of the transition in the mean-squared atomic displacements is not specific to biologically functional molecules.
[en] When an alloy is irradiated, atomic transport can occur through the two types of defects which are created: vacancies and interstitials. Recent developments of the self-consistent mean field (SCMF) kinetic theory could treat within the same formalism diffusion due to vacancies and interstitials in a multi-component alloy. It starts from a microscopic model of the atomic transport via vacancies and interstitials and yields the fluxes with a complete Onsager matrix of the phenomenological coefficients. The jump frequencies depend on the local environment through a 'broken bond model' such that the large range of frequencies involved in concentrated alloys is produced by a small number of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. Kinetic correlations are accounted for through a set of time-dependent effective interactions within a non-equilibrium distribution function of the system. The different approximations of the SCMF theory recover most of the previous diffusion models. Recent improvements of the theory were to extend the multi-frequency approach usually restricted to dilute alloys to diffusion in concentrated alloys with jump frequencies depending on local concentrations and to generalize the formalism first developed for the vacancy diffusion mechanism to the more complex diffusion mechanism of the interstitial in the dumbbell configuration. (author)