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[en] In spite of many reports in the literature concerning with oxidation of benzylic alcohols to carbonyl compounds with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) in stoichiometric amounts or even more, we surprisingly found that benzylic alcohols are directly oxidized to oximes using a catalytic amount of DDQ in the presence of hydroxylamine hydrochloride under solvent-free conditions. The present tandem catalytic method can be efficiently used for preparation of oximes in the presence of some other functional groups with excellent chemoselectivity
[en] In this funding period, we (i) found that strong illumination of Heliobacterium modesticaldum cells results in saturation of the electron acceptor pool, leading to reduction of the acceptor side and the creation of a back-reacting state that gives rise to delayed fluorescence; (ii) noted that when the FX cluster is reduced in purified reaction centers, no electron transfer occurs beyond A0, even though a quinone is present; (iii) observed by photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) studies of whole cells of Heliobacterium mobilis that primary charge separation is retained even after conversion of the majority of BChl g to Chl aF. ; and (iv) purified a homogeneous preparation of reaction center cores, which led to promising crystallization trials to obtain a three-dimensional structure.
[en] A rapid, simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of diclofenac sodium in pure and tablet formulations. The method depends on the charge-transfer complexation between diclofenac sodium as n-electron donor with 2,3-dichloro-,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) in acetonitrile medium as pi-acceptor to give a colored complex which absorbs maximally at 545 nm. Beer's law has been obeyed in the concentration range of 13-275 micro gram ml/sup -1/ with molar absorptivity of 2.5 x 10/sup 3/L mole/sup -1/cm/sup -1/. The proposed method is precise, accurate and specific for routine quantitative analysis of the drug in bulk and dosage forms. (author)
[en] Highlights: • This is the first structure of PnpA determined by X-ray crystallography. • Structure of PnpA is similar to Class A flavoprotein monooxygenases. • The substrate of PnpA is coordinated by cysteine and arginine, which is different from other PHBH family enzymes. p-Nitrophenol 4-monooxygenase PnpA, the key enzyme in the hydroquinone pathway of p-nitrophenol (PNP) degradation, catalyzes the monooxygenase reaction of PNP to p-benzoquinone in the presence of FAD and NADH. Here, we determined the first crystal structure of PnpA from Pseudomonas putida DLL-E4 in its apo and FAD-complex forms to a resolution of 2.04 Å and 2.48 Å, respectively. The PnpA structure shares a common fold with hydroxybenzoate hydroxylases, despite a low amino sequence identity of 14–18%, confirming it to be a member of the Class A flavoprotein monooxygenases. However, substrate docking studies of PnpA indicated that the residues stabilizing the substrate in an orientation suitable for catalysis are not observed in other homologous hydroxybenzoate hydroxylases, suggesting PnpA employs a unique catalytic mechanism. This work expands our understanding on the reaction mode for this enzyme class.
[en] ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are abundant in fish oils, are known to scavenge lipid peroxyl radicals and potentiate host immune defence. As UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, this study was aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic capacity of fat-1 transgenic mice capable of converting ω-6 to ω-3 PUFAs. Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and fat-1 mice were maintained on the AIN-93 diet supplemented with 10% safflower oil rich in ω-6 PUFAs for 5 weeks. The ω-3/ω-6 PUFA ratio was significantly higher in the dorsal skin of fat-1 mice than that in the WT mice. Upon single exposure to UVB (5.0 kJ/m2) radiation, fat-1 mice showed inflammatory as well as oxidative tissue damage and the expression of pro-inflammatory enzymes, cyclooxygenases-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the skin to a much lesser extent than the WT mice. The protection of fat-1 mice from UVB-induced skin inflammation was associated with decreased phosphorylation of STAT3. Moreover, UVB-induced apoptosis was attenuated in fat-1 mouse skin. In comparison to WT animals, higher levels of Nrf2 and its target proteins, such as heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 and thioredoxin-1, were found in the skin of fat-1 mice.
[en] Highlights: • New chemical substance, “Ramalin”, derived from Antarctic lichen, acts as a powerful antioxidant and ROS scavenger. • Ramalin significantly reduces hepatic stellet cell activation, while also reducing malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydroxyproline (HP). • Ramalin offers hepatoprotection effect by ameliorating DMN-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity. Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), primarily collagen, within the liver. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in its pathogenesis, the use of antioxidants as a potential treatment has been broadly explored. Here, we investigated the hepatoprotective properties of ramalin (RM), a compound extracted from the Antarctic lichen Ramalina terebrata, against hepatic fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. RM suppressed hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation in vitro without any significant signs of adverse effects on the cells tested, and the accumulation of ECM was dramatically reduced in the liver tissue. Oral administration of RM in rats noticeably improved the gross appearance of the liver with increased body and liver weight relative to the DMN injected rats, and all of the serum biochemical markers returned to the normal range. RM treatment have ameliorated hepatic fibrosis in rats induced by DMN by repressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and upregulating heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In addition, RM significantly reduced collagen accumulation, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxyproline (HP) in the liver tissue of DMN injected rats. The efficacy exerted by RM was through erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) mediated antioxidant response proteins such as HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO-1). Our results show the beneficial effect of RM against the progression of hepatic fibrosis.
[en] Evidence is presented which supports the reversible formation of molecular complexes between Ps atoms and a series of nitrobenzene derivatives and p-benzoquinone in solution. The activation energy for the forward reaction step I (Ps + M (II) reversible PsM (I)) is generally very small; E/sub A/ approximately 1 kcal/mol. ΔH/sub EQ/, the enthalpy of the overall process, ranges from almost zero, in the case of very unreactive substrates, such as toluene or heptane, to -8 kcal/mol for dinitrobenzene or p-benzoquinone. The reactivities of the various substrate molecules toward Ps follow trends as observed in conventional molecular complex formation. Furthermore an attempt was made to assess the role of the solvent upon the stability of the molecular complexes
[en] A reaction is described that can be utilized to produce 17O-labeled anion radicals that yield strong well resolved ESR signals exhibiting splitting from the 17O nucleus. The oxygen anthraquinone has been studied, and the results are reported herein. 7 references, 1 figure