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[en] The feasibility of developing natural dispersants (biodispersants) for use in response to a marine oil spill was discussed. In this study biochemical tests were conducted with Bacillus and Coccus Gram Positive bacteria in order to select the one marine microorganism which is capable of producing biodispersants to degrade crude oil. Different carbon sources and salt concentrations were used in the experiments. A second experiment was conducted in which the production of biodispersants by the pure microbial strain were studied by measuring interfacial tension, determined by using the Longman method. The surfactant efficacy and the dispersant stability of Arabian Light crude oil was also studied. The biological oxygen demand at five days, biological oxygen demand at the end of the biodegradation, the biodegradation constant and the biochemical stabilization constant were determined during the degradation process. 23 refs., 9 tabs.,4 figs
[en] Membrane separation technology is evolving as a solution to the many problems a mill may be experiencing. Membranes can provide a solution in such areas as: color removal, BOD reduction, salt reduction and reuse, PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) recovery, and latex recovery. Membrane technology is unique in that it can provide a return on investment as a solution to pollution abatement. Membrane solutions are generally in keeping with the Clinton/Gore philosophy of pollution prevention is better than waste treatment. Capital investment is competitive with conventional end of pipe treatment because membrane technologies have become more of a commodity, and because a point source strategy can be employed. In many cases, valuable products can be reclaimed and reused, adding to an overall cost reduction. (author)
[en] Variations in the flow and pollutants concentrations during the day were monitored at the Main Out fall disposal station of the city of Lahore. The laboratory analysis of the wastewater samples collected at 2 hour interval on fifth and sixth May, 2009 for pH, temperature, alkalinity, hardness, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), BOD5 Filtered, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Ammonia Nitrogen (NH/sub 3/-N), chlorides, solids, turbidity, sulphates and nitrates were carried out. Average values and standard deviations were determined to assess the type of wastewater treatment. Correlation between BOD5 and BOD5 Filtered was developed through regression analysis. Diurnal variations in the Ultimate Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BODU) at the Main Out fall based on Carbonaceous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (CBODU) and Nitrogenous Biochemical Oxygen Demand (NBODU) are also estimated. The ratio between CBODU/NBODU ranges between 0.86 to 1.8 during a day at Main Out fall. This variation is primarily due to the large diurnal variation in CBODU values as a result of industrial activities in the study area. The BOD5/ TKN ratio varies between 3.3 and 6.9 and the calculated BODU (i.e., CBODU + NBODU) was found to be almost double of BOD5 during most part of the day primarily due to inclusion of NBOD. The study results reveal the importance of NBOD while designing the wastewater treatment facilities and implementing a water quality control strategy for the River Ravi. (author)
[en] Many renal diseases as well as several pharmacons cause a change in renal blood flow and/or renal oxygenation. The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging takes advantage of local field inhomogeneities and is based on a T2*-weighted sequence. BOLD is a non-invasive method allowing an estimation of the renal, particularly the medullary oxygenation, and an indirect measurement of blood flow without administration of contrast agents. Thus, effects of different drugs on the kidney and various renal diseases can be controlled and observed. This work will provide an overview of the studies carried out so far and identify ways how BOLD can be used in clinical studies. (orig.)
[en] Morphologic and dynamic assessment of respiratory chest kinetics was performed in patients with pectus excavatum deformity (PE) using dynamic MRI: cine MRI. Seven consecutive patients with PE (aged 20.3 years±4.0) and ten healthy volunteers of comparable age underwent real-time cine MRI of the chest during breathing on a 1.5 T MR scanner (Magnetom Sonata, Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany) using a standard phased array body coil and a half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin echo sequence (HASTE) for dynamic imaging. During deep inspiration and expiration, single-shot sequences were performed in one slice level over 20 s at a frequency of 1 image/s covering the entire thoracic cage in three orientations. Morphology and chest kinetics in patients with PE were analyzed and compared with normal values, and typical patterns of chest kinetics were noted. Three different types of chest morphology in PE were identified: (1) the generally flattened thoracic cage, (2) the ''tilted'' sternum, and (3) the focally deepened sternum. Three patterns of motion correspond to these morphological types: (1) elevation of the sternum and the anterior thoracic wall, (2) angulated elevation of the parasternal rib cage with persistent deepening of the sternum resembling a ''wing beat'' movement, and (3) increased diaphragmatic movements with limited chest wall dynamics. Cine MRI is an adequate radiation-free diagnostic modality for the dynamic imaging of both chest morphology and chest wall kinetics in patients with PE. The pectus severity index can easily be determined and three typical movement patterns of chest wall kinetics identified. (orig.)
[de]Morphologische und dynamische Darstellung typischer Bewegungsmuster der Atemmechanik bei Patienten mit Pectus excavatum (PE) mit dynamischer MRT: CINE-MRT. Sieben Patienten mit PE (Alter 20,3 Jahre ± 4,0) und 10 gesunde Probanden entsprechenden Alters wurden mit CINE-MRT des Thorax an einem 1,5-T-MRT (Magnetom Sonata, Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen) untersucht. Bei Verwendung einer Phased-array-Koerperspule und einer Half-Fourier-single-shot-turbo-Spinechosequenz (HASTE) wurden bei tiefer, kontinuierlicher In- und Exspiration Einzelschichtmessungen in allen 3 Raumebenen mit einem Bild/s ueber die Dauer von 20 s angefertigt. Morphologie und Bewegungsmuster des Thorax wurden vergleichend analysiert, und dabei konnten typische Bewegungsabfolgen waehrend des Atemzyklus identifiziert werden. Es konnten 3 morphologische Formen der PE unterschieden werden: Der insgesamt abgeflachte Thorax, das ''gekippte, schraeg gestellte'' Sternum und das ''punktuell eingesunkene'' Sternum. Diesen entsprechen 3 Bewegungsmuster der Atemmechanik des Thorax bei PE: (1) gleichmaessiges Anheben von Sternum und vorderer Brustwand, (2) beidseitig abgewinkeltes Anheben der vorderen Brustwand bei konstant eingesunkenem Sternum (''Fluegelschlagdynamik'') und (3) betontes Absenken des Zwerchfells bei geringer Thoraxexkursion. CINE-MRT ist eine einfache und strahlenfreie Methode zur dynamischen Darstellung der Thoraxatemmechanik bei PE. Individuelle Auspraegung und Schweregrad der Deformitaet koennen zuverlaessig erfasst werden, wobei typische Bewegungsmuster erkennbar sind. (orig.)
[en] This work evaluated the efficiency of bacterial bio-augmentation to the biological treatment of coffee processing wastewater (CPWW) in a pilot wastewater treatment plant (WTP). Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were the basis for the treatment efficiency. Serratia marcescens CCMA 1010 and CCMA 1013, Corynebacterium flavescens CCMA 1006 and Acetobacter indonesiensis CCMA 1002 were previously selected. The microbial cocktail was inoculated and persisted in CPWW during all treatments. The richness of wild species was a little altered over time and up to nine species were found in each sampled season. The microbiota composition presented variation of a total of 13 species, despite the inoculation of the microbial inoculum. The biodegradability index of effluent, close to 0.5, was favourable to biological treatment. The pollution parameters of CPWW were decreased in function of the variation of community composition and microbial activity. The greatest reduction of BOD (~ 33%) and COD (~ 25%) was observed between 72 h and 8 days of the biological treatment. The CPWW toxicity in Allium cepa seeds was lower by up to 60%, and the germination index (GI) exceeded 100% in the treated CPWW. The results of the CPWW biological treatment by bio-augmentation from native micro-organisms in the pilot-scale WTP indicated the greatest efficiency relating to the spontaneous biological treatment of CPWW. After this treatment, the discharge of effluent in the environment would not have toxic effects on the plants.
[en] Mild or severe renal arterial occlusion is a phenomenon occasionally observed in daily clinical practice, potentially leading to renal ischemia and a general impairment of renal function. Secondly, closing the blood flow to the kidneys can also occur during kidney transplantation procedures. However, the exact physiological effects of these conditions on renal blood perfusion as well as the renal oxygen handling are poorly understood. The objectives of this study were therefore to measure the lateral changes of renal blood perfusion in rats subjected to transient unilateral arterial occlusion (RAS), and in addition, to measure the consequences on the intrarenal oxygenation. Experimental studies were performed using sixteen adolescent rats. The left renal artery was exposed through a flank incision and acute RAS for 45 min was achieved by placing a ligature around the renal artery. MRI was performed 3 days after the surgical procedure, where a blood oxygenation sensitive sequence (BOLD MRI) was performed, followed by a perfusion-weighted imaging sequence using a single bolus of the iron-oxide nanoparticle Sinerem. The renal oxygenation of blood was indirectly measured by the BOLD-parameter R2*, and perfusion measures include relative renal blood flow, relative renal blood volume and mean transit time. Histopathologic changes through the outer stripe of the outer medulla showing typical histopathologic findings of ischemia. This study demonstrated that rats with transient renal arterial stenosis (for 45 min) showed a reduction in intrarenal oxygenation and intrarenal blood flow three days after the surgical procedure. A decreased R2* was measured within the ipsilateral medulla in parallel with a decreased medullary blood flow, is probably related to a lower reabsorption load within the ipsilateral kidney. MRI may therefore be a promising tool in long-term evaluation of RAS. (orig.)
[en] A parameter-efficient bioclogging model coupled with hydrodynamics was developed with a stepwise numerical calculation. Column lab tests were carried out to calibrate and verify the bioclogging model developed in this paper. The results showed that the experimental data fit well with the simulation data, which indicated that the developed model was reasonable. According to the sensitivity analysis of the parameters, the BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) loading rate and deposition coefficient are the key parameters for bioclogging. The results illustrate how the clogging is impacted by changing the BOD loading rate and can predict the biofilm accumulation within the substrate, the microbial saturation along the substrate profile over time, and the biofilter longevity based on the biomass growth. The model could dynamically describe the entire process of biological clogging and could quantitatively predict the amount of biofilm accumulated in the pores with the increasing operation time, which provides a basis for the prediction of biological clogging.
[en] Traditionally the biodegradable component of wastewater is measured by a series of wet chemical methods, of which the most important is considered to be the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) TEST. The BOD test is inadequate for effective and efficient process control because of the time required to complete the test (5 days) and the difficulty in achieving consistently accurate measurements. Other chemical tests such as the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), despite being more rapid the the Bod test, do not distinguish between 'biodegradable' and 'non-biodegradable' organic matter. We designed fluorescence instrument that was excited by UV-lamp. The biodegradable chromophoric constant species are considered to be the major contributors to the overall fluorescence within 300-600 nm (using 244 nm excitation). The total intensity of this band has been found to have a good linear correlation (r=0.99) with the COD and BOD parameters. CCD and PMT are used as the fluorescence detectors and the experimental results of correlation were compared.
[en] Water is the most essential of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water it would not have been possible to sustain life on the earth. Presently, the water quality is a more serious problem in this country than its volume because according to WHO standards only 40% of the total population is having potable water. Therefore, samples were collected from Khanpur Dam Area and Rawal dam /associated facilities for investigations. In the present investigation it was found that the concentrations of all physical parameters such as nitrate, nitrite sulphate, chloride, pH, conductivity were within the normal limits. The level of metals in water was also low. Turbidity in surfaces water at some points exceeds recommended guide lines value. Similar situations faced with the exceed values of total suspended matter where high Coliform levels were found which cause growth of bacteria/micro organisms. (author)