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[en] The physiological and biochemical responses of tomato cultivars were studied at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan during 2005-2006 for salt tolerance. Tomato cultivars were Roma Rio Super, Roma V.F., Chinese 87-5, Rio Grand and Super Blocky and subjected to salt stress (75 mM NaCl). Fresh weight, dry weight, and ions sodium and potassium accumulation, Na/sup +/K sup +/ ratio and proline content were determined after imposing the tomato cultivars to NaCl salt for 80 days. Salt stress significantly decreased the fresh and dry weight in Roma Rio Super, Roma V.F, Chinese 87-5 and Rio Grand, however, in Super Blocky the fresh and dry weight were enhanced under stress conditions. Salinity stress increased sodium uptake from 191.828 to 436.170 mu mg/sup -1/ D wt while potassium accumulation decreased from 1033.12 to 926.80 mu mg/sup -1/ D wt resulting in higher Na/sup +/ ratio in stressed (0.48 g) as compared to unstressed control (0.19). The mean proline contents also increased from 28.95 to 40.96 mu M Proline g/sup -1/ F. wt with the maximum increase (57.378%) in Super Blocky followed by Rio Grand (49.325%). (author)
[en] In saline soil conditions the availability and uptake of Ca/sup 2+/ is reduced that results in the loss of membrane integrity and other disorders associated with Ca/sup 2+/ deficiency in plants. A wheat genotype efficient in uptake and utilization of calcium under saline conditions may be better able to withstand saline conditions in the field. Very little information is available on wheat response to salinity and low Ca/sup 2+/ as screening of wheat genotypes has usually been done against salinity alone. The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of different wheat genotypes against salinity at low and adequate calcium supply. The experiment was conducted in hydroponics with four treatments including T1: non-saline with adequate Ca/sup 2+/, T2: non-saline with low Ca/sup 2+/ (level of calcium was 1/4 of the adequate level), T3: saline (125 mM NaCl) with adequate Ca/sup 2+/ and T4: saline with low calcium. All the physical growth parameters including shoot length, root length, and shoot and root fresh weights were decreased significantly due to salinity and low calcium alone as well as in combination. Reduction was more pronounced under the combined stress of salinity and low calcium and different genotypes differed significantly in different stress treatments for shoot and root fresh weight production. In saline treatment (T3), the genotypes 25-SAWSN-39 and 25-SAWSN-31 showed better growth performance and accumulated lower Na+ and higher Ca/sup 2+/ where as the genotypes 25-SAWSN-35 and 25-SAWSN-47 showed less growth and had less accumulation of Ca/sup 2+/ and high accumulation of Na+. In salinity + low calcium treatment the genotype 25-SAWSN-39 behaved as a tolerant genotype where as 25-SAWSN-31 behaved similar to the sensitive genotype and these differences were due to high accumulation of Ca/sup 2+/ in 25-SAWSN-39 and vice versa. This study shows that the salt tolerance of wheat genotypes differs with the availability and accumulation of calcium. Certain genotypes can better uptake and utilize calcium than the others under low calcium supply which improves their salt tolerance under saline conditions. (author)
[en] Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities
[en] To better monitor and remediate environments contaminated by cadmium (Cd), plants are used as hyperaccumulators or biomonitors; however, few have been identified for aquatic Cd pollution. In our study, two aquatic ornamental plants, Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. and Echinodorus grisebachii Small, were studied for their Cd accumulation capacity, morphological characteristics, and leaf physiological indexes. Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. leaf has the potential to hyperaccumulate Cd (166 mg/kg dry weight for 1 mg/L exposure), with no significant physiological difference under exposure. Echinodorus grisebachii Small had sensitive diagnostic responses to Cd toxicity, such as significant decreases in Chl (a + b) and Chl-a/b, increased peroxidase (POD) activity, greater malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and increased soluble sugar content. These results suggest that Microsorum pteropus (Blume) Copel. could have the potential to be a Cd hyperaccumulator, while Echinodorus grisebachii Small could serve as a biomonitor for Cd-contaminated water bodies.
[en] The distribution and bioaccumulation of steroidal and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were studied in various tissues of wild fish species from Dianchi Lake, China. In muscle tissue, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-cumylphenol, 4-nonlyphenol and bisphenol A were detected in fish from each sampling site, with maximal concentrations of 4.6, 4.4, 18.9 and 83.5 ng/g dry weight (dw), respectively. Steroids (estrone, 17β-estradiol 17α-ethynylestradiol and estriol) were found at lower levels (<11.3 ng/g dw) and less frequently in muscle samples. The highest concentrations of steroids and phenols were found in liver, followed by those in gill and the lowest concentration was found in muscle. The field bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of phenols were calculated in fish species ranged from 18 to 97. Moreover, the measured tissue concentrations were utilized in order to estimate water concentration of steroids (4.4-18.0 ng/L). These results showed that steroidal and phenolic EDCs were likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Highlights: → We assess the occurrence of EDCs in wild fish from Dianchi Lake, China. → We investigate the distribution of steroidal and phenolic EDCs in fish tissues. → We estimate the bioaccumulation of wild fish to steroidal and phenolic EDCs. → Steroidal and phenolic EDCs are likely ubiquitous contaminants in wild fish. - Contaminants of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wild fish.
[en] Selenium contents were evaluated in different plant species such as Canola (Brassica napus), Sunflower (Helianthus annus), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Soyabean Seeds (Glycine max) and Akk (Calotropis procera) in order to access their possibility for Se-supplementation. The dry ash of bulb of Turmeric and seeds of Canola, Sunflower, and Soyabean were digested in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, HClO/sub 4/ and HCl to obtain selenium (IV). After adding different reagents, stable blue colored complex was formed. From this colored complex, selenium (IV) was determined by UV/visible spectrophotometer. This work was carried out in an attempt to obtain information concerning the amount of selenium present in different plants. It was observed that Akk is a good accumulator of selenium as it contains almost 30 mu g selenium per gram and can be used for different medicinal applications. (author)
[en] Mercury (Hg) causes a range of deleterious effects in wildlife, but little is known about its effects on amphibians. Our objective was to determine whether Hg affects performance and behavior in two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata). We collected salamanders from Hg-contaminated and reference sites and assessed speed, responsiveness, and prey capture ability. Mercury concentrations were >17x higher in salamanders from the contaminated sites and were among the highest documented in amphibians. In the first, but not in the second, locomotion trial, we found a significant effect of Hg on speed and responsiveness. In the prey capture experiment, reference salamanders ate approximately twice as many prey items as the contaminated salamanders. Together, our results suggest that sublethal Hg concentrations may negatively affect salamanders by reducing their ability to successfully execute tasks critical to survival. Future work is warranted to determine whether Hg has other sublethal effects on salamanders and whether other amphibians are similarly affected. - Mercury contamination may alter behavior and performance in the northern two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata).
[en] The present study was conducted to investigate the response of different wheat genotypes to salinity stress. Field experiments were conducted at three different locations of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan i.e., Yar Hussain, Baboo Dehari (District Swabi) and Khitab Koroona (District Charsadda) to study the performance of 11 wheat genotypes (Local, SR-24, SR- 25, SR-7, SR-22, SR-4, SR-20, SR-19, SR-2, SR-23 and SR-40) for their salinity tolerance. These locations had different salinity profile i.e., Yar Hussain, EC. 3-3.5 dSm/sup -1/; Baboo Dehari, EC. 4- 4.5 dSm/sup -1/ and Khitab Koroona, EC. 5-5.30 dSm/sup -1/). Different locations and wheat genotypes had a significant (p<0.05) effect on biological and grain yield, shoot Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence). Maximum biological and grain yield , maximum shoot K/sup +/ , and minimum Na/sup +/ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded in genotype SR-40 followed by genotype SR-23. Our results further indicated that maximum biological and grain yield and minimum shoot K/sup +/, Na/sup +/ concentrations (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) were recorded at Yar Hussain. Maximum, K/sup +/ and Na/sup +/ concentration (3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence) and minimum biological and grain yield were observed at Khitab Koroona. (author)
[en] A hydroponics experiment was conducted to examine the phytofiltration of Cd by Limnocharis flava (L.) Buchenau grown in low-level Cd-contaminated water. For this, 45 d old seedlings of L .flava were transferred to a floating-support culture system containing nutrient solution spiked with four levels of Cd (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg l-1) and were separately harvested after 3, 7, 21 and 30 d. After 30 d harvesting, the percentage removal of Cd from the above four treatments reached up to 98, 96, 95 and 93%, respectively. Interestingly, all treatments had higher growth rate than control at 95% confidence level and plants still remained healthy at 4 mg l-1 Cd exposure. The bioaccumulation study showed a linear relationship of Cd (R2 = 0.896-0.999) in all plant parts with the exposure time (3-30 d) and Cd concentrations in hydroponics system (0.5-4 mg l-1). Although, the root of L. flava had higher Cd concentration than leaf and peduncles, the total Cd concentrations in aerial plant parts were higher than the roots. The maximum bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) value of L. flava were calculated as 984.42 and 1.43, respectively. Estimated Cd accumulation capacity of L. flava per unit area (m2) was found to be in the range of 218. 35-1698.92 mg m-2.The experimental results demonstrated that L. flava is a suitable candidate for the phytofiltartion (>93%) of Cd from low-level Cd-contaminated water.