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[en] Research has demonstrated the toxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg), yet molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity are not completely understood. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) offers a unique biological model to explore mechanisms of MeHg toxicity given many advantages associated with its ease of use and genetic power. Since our previous work indicated neurotoxic resistance of C. elegans to MeHg, the present study was designed to examine molecular mechanisms associated with this resistance. We hypothesized MeHg would induce expression of gst, hsp or mtl in vivo since glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins (HSPs), and metallothioneins (MTs) have shown involvement in MeHg toxicity. Our studies demonstrated a modest, but significant increase in fluorescence in gst-4::GFP and mtl-1::GFP strains at an acute, low L1 MeHg exposure, whereas chronic L4 MeHg exposure induced expression of gst-4::GFP and hsp-4::GFP. Knockout gst-4 animals showed no alterations in lethality sensitivity compared to wildtype animals whereas mtl knockouts displayed increased sensitivity to MeHg exposure. GSH levels were increased by acute MeHg treatment and depleted with chronic exposure. We also demonstrate that MeHg induces hormesis, a phenotype whereby a sublethal exposure to MeHg rendered C. elegans resistant to subsequent exposure to the organometal. The involvement of gst-4, hsp-4, mtl-1, and mtl-2 in hormesis was examined. An increase in gst-4::GFP expression after a low-dose acute exposure to MeHg indicated that gst-4 may be involved in this response. Our results implicate GSH, HSPs, and MTs in protecting C. elegans from MeHg toxicity and show a potential role of gst-4 in MeHg-induced hormesis.
[en] Extensive dose response studies have assessed the potential of toxic chemical agents to induce aneuploidy in the yeast model. An assessment of such findings revealed that hormetic-like biphasic dose responses were commonly observed. A preliminary estimate of the frequency of the hormetic responses using a priori entry and evaluative criteria was approximately 65–80%. - Highlights: • Hormesis occurred commonly for chemically induced aneuploidy. • An estimate of the frequency of hormesis for aneuploidy is provided. • Findings suggest that hormesis should be evaluated for other genotoxic endpoints. - This work is of significance because it provides evidence that hormetic dose responses maybe applicable to genotoxic endpoints.
[en] We examined 10 wood frog populations distributed along an agricultural gradient for their tolerance to six pesticides (carbaryl, malathion, cypermethrin, permethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) that differed in date of first registration (pesticide novelty) and mode-of-action (MOA). Our goals were to assess whether: 1) tolerance was correlated with distance to agriculture for each pesticide, 2) pesticide novelty predicted the likelihood of evolved tolerance, and 3) populations display cross-tolerance between pesticides that share and differ in MOA. Wood frog populations located close to agriculture were more tolerant to carbaryl and malathion than populations far from agriculture. Moreover, the strength of the relationship between distance to agriculture and tolerance was stronger for older pesticides compared to newer pesticides. Finally, we found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion (two pesticides that share MOA). This study provides one of the most comprehensive approaches for understanding patterns of evolved tolerance in non-pest species. - Highlights: • We explored patterns of tolerance to six insecticides across 10 wood frog populations. • We found evidence that wood frogs have evolved tolerance to carbaryl and malathion. • The likelihood of evolved tolerance was stronger for older compared to newer pesticides. • We found evidence for cross-tolerance between carbaryl and malathion. • This is one of the most comprehensive approaches studying evolved tolerance in a non-pest species. - Using 10 wood frog populations, we detected evidence for evolved tolerance, found that the evolved tolerance depends on insecticide novelty, and found evidence for cross-tolerance.
[en] We describe a novel virus, AFV1, of the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Acidianus. Filamentous virions are covered with a lipid envelope and contain at least five different proteins with molecular masses in the range of 23-130 kDa and a 20.8-kb-long linear double-stranded DNA. The virus has been assigned to the family Lipothrixviridae on the basis of morphotypic characteristics. Host range is confined to several strains of Acidianus and the virus persists in its hosts in a stable carrier state. The latent period of virus infection is about 4 h. Viral DNA was sequenced and sequence similarities were found to the lipothrixvirus SIFV, the rudiviruses SIRV1 and SIRV2, as well as to conjugative plasmids and chromosomes of the genus Sulfolobus. Exceptionally for the linear genomes of archaeal viruses, many short direct repeats, with the sequence TTGTT or close variants thereof, are closely clustered over 300 bp at each end of the genome. They are reminiscent of the telomeric ends of linear eukaryal chromosomes
[en] Hormesis and essentiality are likely real and common effects at the level of the individual. However, the widespread incorporation of stimulatory effects into applications of ecotoxicology requires the acceptance of assumptions, value judgements and possibly lowering of water/sediment quality standards. There is also currently little data appropriate for considering hormetic effects in the ecotoxicological context. Except perhaps in the case of fitting concentration-response curves, it is not clear that incorporation of hormetic and essentiality type responses into ecotoxicology is necessary. Furthermore, its incorporation presents considerable intellectual and practical changes for ecotoxicology and could have unanticipated consequences. - The acceptance of hormesis and essentiality in ecotoxicology requires major conceptual changes and considerable new data
[en] Inactivity is a common daytime behavior expressed by wild cats in zoos. It is not clear whether this inactivity is due to the constraints of the captive environment or is a result of a more natural behavior by these animals. Therefore, this work evaluated the behavior of two Panthera onca captive specimens, including their inactivity, during the evening/night period. The jaguars were filmed individually in different days, starting at 5:30 pm and finishing between 7:00 pm and 1:30 am, including non-feeding and feeding days. Regardless of whether they were fed or not, both jaguars expressed a significant rate of inactivity. In addition, when fed, one of the jaguars increased its movements and active behaviors, although its inactivity remained high, while the other jaguar further reduced the expression of such behaviors. Therefore, this work concludes that these jaguars were just as inactive during the evening/night period as they were during daytime. Excessive inactivity might be regarded as a negative behavior; with its highest expression being an effect of the captive environment, which might compromise the welfare of the assessed jaguars and possibly of other wild cats. In addition, since the behavioral expression varied between the studied jaguars, depending on the feeding or non-feeding status, we recommend that futures studies should taking into account the individual variations, especially when there are differences in age, health, and management conditions between the specimens.
[en] The changes in algal and invertebrate communities resulting from the formation and operation of two water reservoirs in Saskatchewan were studied. Lake Diefenbaker was created in 1967 by flooding a river valley, whereas Buffalo Pound Lake was formed in 1952 by impounding the outflow of a shallow lake. Both lakes were studied using a multiple-indicator paleolimnological approach. Algal community composition is similar between the two reservoirs and biomass is distributed evenly among green algae, diatoms, chrysophyte, dinoflagellates, cryptophytes and cyanobacteria. Crustacean zooplankton are also similar between the two reservoirs. Sediment core was retrieved from both reservoirs and analyzed. It was shown that differences in reservoir formation and hydrological regime resulted in distinct patterns of aquatic community change even though the local geology, vegetation, soils, land use and climate were similar. Comparison of paleoecological records from both lakes have made it possible to compare the mechanisms that regulate community ontogeny and production following formation of reservoirs by novo flooding and lake inundation. It was determined that reservoir ontogeny does not inevitably lead to eutrophication. Fossil records have shown that oligotrophication can result from increased lake level stability, reduced erosion and complex ecological interactions among phytoplankton, grazers, and macrophyte populations. 49 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs
[en] The work shows the relationship between the main areas of ecology, social ecology and human ecology, as well as their environmental and human protection functions. It is shown that one of the foundations of human ecology is the comprehension of the emotional state of another person, an understanding of his feelings, the desire to provide support, help other people, i.e. empathy. (author)
[en] Purpose: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) localizes Broca's area (B) and Wernicke's area (W) and the hemisphere dominant for language. In clinical fMRI, adapting the stimulation paradigms to each patient's individual cognitive capacity is crucial for diagnostic success. To interpret clinical fMRI findings correctly, we studied the effect of varying frequency and number of stimuli on functional localization, determination of language dominance and BOLD signals. Materials and Methods: Ten volunteers (VP) were investigated at 1.5 Tesla during visually triggered sentence generation using a standardized block design. In four different measurements, the stimuli were presented to each VP with frequencies of (1/1)s, (1/2)s,(1/3)s and (1/6)s. Results: The functional localizations and the correlations of the measured BOLD signals to the applied hemodynamic reference function (r) were almost independent from frequency and number of the stimuli in both hemispheres, whereas the relative BOLD signal changes (ΔS) in B and W increased with the stimulation rate, which also changed the lateralization indices. The strongest BOLD activations were achieved with the highest stimulation rate or with the maximum language production task, respectively. Conclusion: The adaptation of language paradigms necessary in clinical fMRI does not alter the functional localizations but changes the BOLD signals and language lateralization which should not be attributed to the underlying brain pathology. (orig.)