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[en] Highlights: • Advances in mass spectrometry have expanded our knowledge of lipids. • Targeted and non-targeted lipidomics are powerful strategies with distinct features. • We briefly review the applications of these lipidomics strategies in lipid research. • Current limitations and challenges in lipidomics are also discussed. Recent advances in mass spectrometry have expanded our knowledge of lipids and lipid metabolic pathways involved in many (patho)physiological events. Targeted and non-targeted lipidomics are powerful analytical strategies with distinct features, and a combination of these two approaches is often employed to maximize the coverage of lipid species detected and quantified in complex biological matrices. This review briefly summarizes the applications of targeted and non-targeted lipidomics, mainly focusing on electrospray ionization–liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (ESI–LC–MS/MS), along with recent technical advances in the field. Current limitations and challenges in lipidomics and possible solutions are also discussed.
[en] Radiopharmaceuticals can be utilised to investigate only one metabolic pathway or a series of related metabolic pathways. A brief article discusses ways of achieving specificity including isotopic substitution, isomorphic substitution, biological transport, enzyme binding, receptor binding, antigen-antibody reactions and liposomes. (UK)
[en] A self limiting interaction between heart disease producing factors and genetic factors is postulated. Such an interaction could be responsable for the fall in rate of death from ischemic disease observed in the United States. (Author)
[pt]Postula-se um limite de interacao entre fatores causadores de doencas cardiacas e fatores geneticos. Tal interacao poderia ser responsavel pelo decrescimo observado na taxa de mortalidade por doencas isquemicas nos Estados Unidos. (M.A.C.)
[en] Highlights: • LncRNA GAS5 plays a key role in CFs activation and fibrosis. • GAS5/miR-21/PTEN axis involvement in CFs activation. • GAS5 negative controls miR-21 expression in activated CFs. - Abstract: Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in many diseases including cardiac fibrosis. LncRNA growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) is reported as a significant mediator in the control of cell proliferation and growth; however, the role and function in cardiac fibrosis remain unknown. In this study, we confirmed that GAS5 was lowly expressed in cardiac fibrosis tissues as well as activated cardiac fibroblast. Overexpression of GAS5 inhibited the proliferation of cardiac fibroblast. Moreover, microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been reported to be overexpressed in cardiac fibrosis tissues as well as activated cardiac fibroblast, which is responsible for the progression of cardiac fibrosis. We found that up-regulated GAS5 decreased the expression of miR-21 significantly. Furthermore, GAS5 that upregulated or downregulated the expression of PTEN through miR-21 in cardiac fibroblasts. Taken together, GAS5 plays a suppressive role in cardiac fibrosis via negative regulation of miR-21. These results indicated that GAS5 may be a novel therapeutic target for further research of cardiac fibrosis.
[en] While the introduction of radioactive tracers in the study of metabolic pathways has been well-documented in clinical thyroidology as early as 1924, the widespread utilization in other clinical specialties has been hampered by slow developments in radiation-detecting devices and in the production of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals, in addition to the morbid fear of radiation. In the Philippines, the first radioisotope laboratory was established in 1956. Ten years later, the Philippine Society of Nuclear Medicine was formed. Through the years, challenges were overcome, foundations were laid down, growth was encouraged, friendships with other organizations were built, adjustments were made, and rules were enforced. To date, there are approximately 58 nuclear medicine centers randomly distributed from north to south of the Philippines, 7 accredited nuclear medicine training institutions, 95 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians (a few of whom are also internationally recognized), and a regionally-indexed Philippine Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Qualifying examinations for technologists were also recently instated. International relations are constantly strengthened by sending trainees abroad and accepting foreign trainees here, as well as participating in conferences and other endeavors. While the cost of putting up nuclear medicine centers in the Philippines is still prohibitive, it should not pose too much of a constraint as there are foreign and local parties willing to help. With appropriate instrumentation, targeting radiopharmaceuticals and trained human resources, nuclear medicine can indeed contribute much to health care delivery
[en] Glutamine catabolism is considered to be an important metabolic pathway for cancer cells. Glutaminase (GLS) is the important rate-limiting enzyme of glutamine catabolism. miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor in many human malignant tumors. However, the role and molecular mechanism of miR-137 and GLS in malignant melanoma has not been reported. In this study, we showed that miR-137 was decreased in melanoma tissue, and the low miR-137 level and high GLS expression are independent risk factor in melanoma. miR-137 suppressed the proliferation and glutamine catabolism of melanoma cells. GLS is crucial for glutamine catabolism and growth of malignant melanoma. We also demonstrated that miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor in melanoma by targeting GLS. This result elucidates a new mechanism for miR-137 in melanoma development and provides a survival indicator and potential therapeutic target for melanoma patients.