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[en] The purpose of this study is to report outcomes following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in patients with ectatic common iliac arteries (CIAs). Of 117 AAA patients treated by EVAR between 1998 and 2005, 87 (74%) had CIAs diameters <18 mm and 30 (26%) patients had one or more CIA diameters >18 but <25 mm. All patients were treated with Talent stent-grafts, 114 bifurcated and 3 AUI devices. Departmental databases and patient records were reviewed to assess outcomes. Technical success, iliac-related outcome, and iliac-related reintervention (IRSI) were analyzed. Patients with EVAR extending into the external iliac artery were excluded. Median (range) follow-up for the study group was 24 (1-84) months. Initial technical success was 98% for CIAs <18 mm and 100% for CIAs ≥18 mm (p = 0.551). There were three distal type I endoleaks (two in the ectatic group) and six iliac limb occlusions (one in an ectatic patient); there were no statistically significant differences between groups (p = 0.4). There were nine IRSIs (three stent-graft extensions, six femorofemoral crossover grafts); three of these patients had one or both CIAs ≥18 mm (p = 0.232). One-year freedom from IRSI was 92% ± 3% and 84% ± 9% for the <18-mm and ≥18-mm CIA groups, respectively (p = 0.232). We conclude that the treatment of AAA by EVAR in patients with CIAs 18-24 mm appears to be safe and effective, however, it may be associated with more frequent reinterventions.
[en] Coil embolization of the internal iliac artery (IIA) is used to extend the application of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in cases of challenging iliac anatomy. Pelvic ischemia is a complication of the technique, but reports vary as to the rate and severity. This study reports our experience with IIA embolization and compares the results to those of other published series. The vascular unit database of the Leicester Royal Infirmary was used to identify patients who had undergone IIA coil embolization prior to EVAR. Data were collected from hospital case notes and by telephone interviews. Thirty-eight patients were identified; 29 of these were contactable by telephone. A literature search was performed for other studies of IIA embolization and the results were pooled. In this series buttock claudication occurred in 55% (16 of 29 patients) overall: in 52% of unilateral embolizations (11 of 21) and 63% of bilateral embolizations (5 of 8). New erectile dysfunction occurred in 46% (6 of 13 patients) overall: in 38% of unilateral embolizations (3 of 8) and 60% of bilateral embolizations (3 of 5). The literature review identified 18 relevant studies. The results were pooled with our results, to give 634 patients in total. Buttock claudication occurred in 28% overall (178 of 634 patients): in 31% of unilateral embolizations (99 of 322) and 35% of bilateral embolizations (34 of 98) (p = 0.46, Fisher's exact test). New erectile dysfunction occurred in 17% overall (27 of 159 patients): in 17% of unilateral embolizations (16 of 97) and 24% of bilateral embolizations (9 of 38) (p = 0.33). We conclude that buttock claudication and erectile dysfunction are frequent complications of IIA embolization and patients should be counseled accordingly.
[en] Increase in entropy and damage are ever occurring phenomena in nature. Life of human beings is a clear example of increasing entropy with age. No one can stop the one-way process of increasing entropy, however repairing the damages helps to slow down this process. Living organisms have a natural mechanism of healing the damages with in a limit. However, this mechanism is not inherent in case of non-living materials, but this feature could be incorporated in these materials. This is a focus of researchers since last many years. Self-healing materials have found wide applications in areas like building materials, tensile materials, electronics and biomedical applications. This paper presents the applications of self-healing materials in development of transistors, sensors, optical devices, printable conductive inks, conductive polymer hydrogels and cementitious materials. Different classifications of self-healing materials, along with their physical and chemical behaviour, have been discussed. Some of the potential applications, advantages and challenges have been highlighted. (topical review)
[en] DNA repair plays a crucial role in protection of human genetic material against genotoxic agents including carcinogens, ensuring genome stability. Variability of DNA repair was observed on many levels. These are several mechanisms of damage removal and a number of enzymes taking part in the specific steps of DNA repair. Hence, variations in efficiency of DNA repair among healthy individuals can be explained in term of genetic polymorphism. There are also some exogenous and endogenous factors affecting the DNA repair machinery in human organism. The first group includes diet and genotoxic exposure whereas the second comprises age (negative linear correlation) and health status. Within the group of health status factor neo-plasticity and diseases with hereditary DNA repair deficit are discussed extensively. The well documented heterogeneity of DNA repair inside the genome concerns differences between classes of DNA (e.g. nuclear v. mitochondrial or repetitive v. single copy) and preferential repair of activity transcribed genes. The main message of the article is that DNA repair should be recognized as fairly individual and, moreover, as being modulated by many factors. (author). 25 refs, 2 figs
[en] Targeted biological therapy, alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy, make significant progress in the treatment of patients with malignancy. Its use as opposed to high-dose chemotherapy is not limited by age, nevertheless, we have relatively little knowledge of the toxicity and effectiveness in geriatric patients. Aim of this article is to give an overview of the biological effectiveness and toxicity of anticancer therapy in geriatric patients, based on published data. (author)
[en] Emerging 3D printing technology permits innovative approaches to manufacture cartilage scaffolds associated with layer-by-layer mechanical property adaptation. However, information about gradients of mechanical properties in human articular cartilage is limited. In this study, we quantified a zone-dependent change of local elastic modulus of human femoral condyle cartilage by using an instrumented indentation technique. From the cartilage superficial zone towards the calcified layer, a gradient of elastic modulus values between 0.020 ± 0.003 MPa and 6.44 ± 1.02 MPa was measured. To validate the tissue quality, the histological tissue composition was visualized by glycosaminoglycan and collagen staining. This work aims to introduce a new protocol to investigate the zone-dependent mechanical properties of graded structures, such as human articular cartilage. From this knowledge, better cartilage repair strategies could be tailored in the future.
[en] The dysferlinopathies (e.g. LGMD2b, Myoshi myopathy) are progressive, adult-onset muscle wasting syndromes caused by mutations in the gene coding for dysferlin. Dysferlin is a large (∼ 200 kDa) membrane-anchored protein, required for maintenance of plasmalemmal integrity in muscle fibers. To facilitate analysis of dysferlin function in muscle cells, we have established a dysferlin-deficient myogenic cell line (GREG cells) from the A/J mouse, a genetic model for dysferlinopathy. GREG cells have no detectable dysferlin expression, but proliferate normally in growth medium and fuse into functional myotubes in differentiation medium. GREG myotubes exhibit deficiencies in plasma membrane repair, as measured by laser wounding in the presence of FM1–43 dye. Under the wounding conditions used, the majority (∼ 66%) of GREG myotubes lack membrane repair capacity, while no membrane repair deficiency was observed in dysferlin-normal C2C12 myotubes, assayed under the same conditions. We discuss the possibility that the observed heterogeneity in membrane resealing represents genetic compensation for dysferlin deficiency.
[en] The mechanistic details of keloid formation are still not understood. Given that the immune system is engaged in skin lesion repair, we examined the CD14+ macrophages and CD3+ T cells in keloid tissues and in the normal skin. Compared to the normal skin, keloid tissues presented significantly elevated infiltration by CD14+ macrophages. Moreover, the transcription and protein expression of iNOS, IL-12, IL-10, and TGF-β were significantly higher in keloid macrophages than in normal skin macrophages, in which the expression of M2-associated genes were further elevated compared to M1-associated genes in keloid. We also observed that keloid tissues presented higher infiltration by CD3+ T cells, of which the majority was CD4+ T cells. Notably, the frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in keloid tissues was significantly higher compared to that in the peripheral blood. Furthermore, macrophages from keloid tissues possessed potent capacity to induce Foxp3 expression in circulating CD3+ T cells. Together, this study suggested that macrophages in keloid tissues presented high activation status and were polarized toward the M2 subtype; moreover, these macrophages could promote Treg differentiation by upregulating Foxp3 expression.