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[en] Diffraction on scattering centers forming a Rauzy tiling has been theoretically investigated. It is proven that a set of Rauzy points is a model set and it is shown that a Rauzy tiling has a diffraction pattern with narrow Bragg peaks, whose positions and the corresponding intensities are functions of three integer indices. It is also shown that, as a result of the presence of similarity symmetry in the Rauzy tiling, the set of diffraction peaks is divided into nonintersecting classes. Peaks of each class fall on a bilateral spiral, expanding from the origin of coordinates to infinity. The specific features of diffraction in the case of scattering from the quasi-lattice of tiling singularities (Rauzy points) and the geometric centers of tiles are considered separately.
[en] We report a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the magnetic structure of the honeycomb-lattice magnet Na2IrO3, a candidate for a realization of a gapless spin liquid. Using resonant x-ray magnetic scattering at the Ir L3 edge, we find three-dimensional long-range antiferromagnetic order below TN = 13.3 K. From the azimuthal dependence of the magnetic Bragg peak, the ordered moment is determined to be predominantly along the a axis. Combining the experimental data with first-principles calculations, we propose that the most likely spin structure is a zig-zag structure.
[en] We performed neutron powder diffraction measurements on (Bi0.5Na0.5+x)TiO3 and (Bi0.5+y Na0.5)TiO3 to study the structural evolution induced by the non-stoichiometry. Despite the nonstoichiometry, the local structure (r ≤ 3.5 Å) from the pair distribution function analysis is barely affected by a sodium deficit of up to −5 mol%. With increasing pair distance, however, the atomic pair correlations weaken due to the disorder caused by the sodium deficiency. Although the sodium and the bismuth share the same crystallographic site, their non-stoichiometries have rather opposite effects as revealed from distinctive distortions of the Bragg peaks. In addition, a Rietveld refinement demonstrates that the octahedral tilting is continually suppressed for sodium deficits up to −5 mol%. This is contrary to the effect of the bismuth deficiency, which induces little variation in the octahedral tilting.
[en] We describe the measurements of neutron spectra that we undertook around a scanning proton beam at the Skandion proton therapy clinic in Uppsala, Sweden. Measurements were undertaken using an extended energy range Nested Neutron Spectrometer (NNS, Detec Inc., Gatineau, QC) operated in pulsed and current mode. Spectra were measured as a function of location in the treatment room and for various Bragg peak depths. Our preliminary unfolded data clearly show the direct, evaporation and thermal neutron peaks and we can show the effect on the neutron spectrum of a water phantom in the primary proton beam.
[en] An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously
[en] In proton scanning systems that employ active energy variation for depth modulation, a switch of the particle energy might typically require 1-2 s. For plans comprising many energy slices, these seconds could sum up to a non-negligible fraction of the total treatment duration. We have applied the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem to determine an efficient spatial arrangement of Bragg peaks in a target volume. This pre-determined schedule of increasing energy spacing with higher energy allows us to reduce the number of used energy slices without compromising the physical dosimetric quality of a plan. Our results suggest that the advantage of such a simple implementation would be especially significant for larger, deep-seated tumors such as the prostate; the number of energy slices was cut by a factor of 2-6. (note)
[en] The aim of this research is to develop a stereotactic-radiosurgery (SRS) technique using carbon beams to treat small intracranial lesions; we call this device the carbon knife. A 2D-scanning method is adapted to broaden a pencil beam to an appropriate size for an irradiation field. A Mitsubishi slow extraction using third order resonance through a rf acceleration system stabilized by a feed-forward scanning beam using steering magnets with a 290 MeV/u initial beam energy was used for this purpose. Ridge filters for spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) with widths of 5 mm, 7.5 mm, and 10 mm were designed to include fluence-attenuation effects. The collimator, which defines field shape, was used to reduce the lateral penumbra. The lateral-penumbra width at the SOBP region was less than 2 mm for the carbon knife. The penumbras behaved almost the same when changing the air gap, but on the other hand, increasing the range-shifter thickness mostly broadened the lateral penumbra. The physical-dose rates were approximate 6 Gy s−1 and 4.5 Gy s−1 for the 10 × 10 mm2 and 5 × 5 mm2 collimators, respectively. (paper)
[en] Although Bortfeld's analytical formula is useful for describing Bragg curves, measured data can deviate from the values predicted by the model. Thus, we sought to determine the parameters of a closed analytical expression of multiple Bragg curves for scanning proton pencil beams using a simultaneous optimization algorithm and to determine the minimum number of energies that need to be measured in treatment planning so that complete Bragg curves required by the treatment planning system (TPS) can be accurately predicted. We modified Bortfeld's original analytical expression of Bragg curves to accurately describe the dose deposition resulting from secondary particles. The parameters of the modified analytical expression were expressed as the parabolic cylinder function of the ranges of the proton pencil beams in water. Thirty-nine discrete Bragg curves were measured in our center using a PTW Bragg Peak chamber during acceptance and commission of the scanning beam proton delivery system. The coefficients of parabolic function were fitted by applying a simultaneous optimization algorithm to seven measured curves. The required Bragg curves for 45 energies in the TPS were calculated using our parameterized analytical expression. Finally, the 10 cm width of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) of beams with maximum energies of 221.8 and 121.2 MeV were then calculated in the TPS and compared with measured data. Compared with Bortfeld's original formula, our modified formula improved fitting of the measured depth dose curves at depths around three-quarters of the maximum range and in the beam entrance region. The parabolic function described the relationship between the parameters of the analytic expression of different energies. The predicted Bragg curves based on the parameters fitted using the seven measured curves accurately described the Bragg curves of proton pencil beams of 45 energies configured in our TPS. When we used the calculated Bragg curves as the input to TPS, the standard deviations of the measured and calculated data points along the 10 cm SOBPs created with proton pencil beams with maximum energies of 221.8 and 121.2 MeV were 1.19% and 1.18%, respectively, using curves predicted by the algorithm generated from the seven measured curves. Our method would be a valuable tool to analyze measured Bragg curves without the need for time-consuming measurements and correctly describe multiple Bragg curves using a closed analytical expression.
[en] This report describes 27 patients treated for arteriovenous malformations of the brain by the Bragg Peak proton beam method during the past 12 years. The authors are led to a measure of confidence that Bragg Peak proton therapy can be provided without lethal risk attributed to the procedure. In 21 patients no neurological change has occurred, two patients experienced neurological improvement and four have developed new neurological abnormalities considered complications of the therapy. (Auth.)