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[en] This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities
[en] The paper presents a comprehensive review on shear strength provisions of RC beam–column joint in various national codes viz. ACI 318-2014, NZS 3101-1:2006, EN 1998-1:2004, CSA A23.3:2004, AIJ:2010, and IS 13920:2016. The shear strength equation given in these codes are generic and simple in application, which is based on the contribution of only a few governing parameters. However, the effects of governing parameters in different codes are considered in different ways. As a result, the code prediction varies significantly among themselves as well as with experimental studies. Considering these differences, the influence of various governing parameters on the joint shear strength are evaluated. A database is compiled from 492 experimental results of beam–column joints from literature. To find the cause of variation between code prediction and experimental observations, different type of failure modes of beam–column joints is studied. Consequently, two parameters namely, aspect ratio of joint and area ratio of column to beam cross-section is observed to be affecting the code predictions considerably. The influence of these two parameters on the joint shear strength is validated with the compiled experimental results. Therefore, to ameliorate the code prediction, two approaches i.e. aspect ratio approach and area ratio approach are proposed. The first approach is based on the effect of variation of strut angle on joint shear strength, whereas, the second approach proposes various empirical modification factors based on area ratio of column to beam cross-section. By using these two approaches, it is observed that the difference between the code predictions and experimental results can be minimized considerably. These approaches make the code prediction suitable for design purpose.
[en] 50 years of progressively strengthened energy requirements in the Danish building code appear to be a success, as the energy consumption has remained constant despite an increase in the total area in requirement of heating. This article however argues that the building code mechanism is heavily influenced by path dependent regime structuration processes, and that the mechanism constitutes a barrier to more radical developments within low energy housing. Few and poorly organized frontrunner activities within low energy housing have accordingly taken place in a Danish context during the past decades. Finally it is proposed that the current development within the energy system provides opportunities for cultivating an improved transitional awareness and for carrying out experimental activities that may challenge the path dependencies of prevailing regime structuration processes. - Highlights: ► We analyze the role of the building code energy strategy as an incumbent regime. ► Regime independent development activities such as passive houses are retained. ► Industry is characterized by adaptive capacity to support radical development. ► Adaptive capacity needs to be mobilized and configure by regime problematizations. ► Governance capabilities to achieve such a mobilization are presently in short supply.
[en] Photovoltaic (PV) technology development for building-integrated applications (commonly called PV for Buildings) is one of the fastest growing areas in the PV industry. Buildings represent a huge potential market for photovoltaics because they consume approximately two-thirds of the electricity consumed in the US. The PV and buildings industries are beginning to work together to address issues including building codes and standards, integration, after-market servicing, education, and building energy efficiency. One of the most notable programs to encourage development of new PV-for-buildings products is the PV:BONUS program, supported by the US Department of Energy. Demand for these products from building designers has escalated since the program was initiated in 1993. This paper presents a range of PV-for-buildings issues and products that are currently influencing today's PV and buildings markets
[en] This report provides the results of a research project that investigated the use of codes and standards in terms of their potential for fostering adaptation to the future impacts of climate change on built infrastructure in Canada's north. This involved a literature review, undertaking key informant interviews, and a workshop where key stakeholders came together to dialogue on the challenges facing built infrastructure in the north as a result of climate change and the role of codes and standards to help mitigate climate change risk. In this article, attention is given to the topic area of climate data and information requirements related to climate and climate change. This was an important focal area that was identified through this broader research effort since adequate data is essential in allowing codes and standards to meet their ultimate policy objective. A number of priorities have been identified specific to data and information needs in the context of the research topic investigated: There is a need to include northerners in developing the climate and permafrost data required for codes and standards so that these reflect the unique geographical, economic, and cultural realities and variability of the north; Efforts should be undertaken to realign climate design values so that they reflect both present and future risks; There is a need for better information on the rate and extent of permafrost degradation in the north; and, There is a need to improve monitoring of the rate of climate change in the Arctic. (author)
[en] The purpose of this design guide is to provide radiological safety requirements, standards, and information necessary for designing facilities that will operate without unacceptable risk to personnel, the public, or the environment as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This design guide, together with WHC-CM-4-29, Nuclear Criticality Safety, WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis, and WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance, covers the radiation safety design requirements at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This design guide applies to the design of all new facilities. The WHC organization with line responsibility for design shall determine to what extent this design guide shall apply to the modifications to existing facilities. In making this determination, consideration shall include a cost versus benefit study. Specifically, facilities that store, handle, or process radioactive materials will be covered. This design guide replaces WHC-CM-4-9 and is designated a living document. This design guide is intended for design purposes only. Design criteria are different from operational criteria and often more stringent. Criteria that might be acceptable for operations might not be adequate for design
[en] The Green Deal is a major new energy policy designed to support the diffusion of energy efficiency measures in UK homes. This paper provides one of the first empirical examinations of the Green Deal′s success in influencing homeowners’ renovation decisions. Using a repeated measures design in which households were questioned before and after the Green Deal′s launch in January 2013, we assess the policy′s success in raising awareness of energy efficiency. In particular, we test the effectiveness of the Green Deal′s positioning to overcome barriers to renovation among homeowners already interested in or considering energy efficiency measures. Using the innovation decision process (Rogers, 2003) as a conceptual framing of the renovation decision process, we examine whether new information on energy efficiency provided by the Green Deal strengthened intentions and its antecedents. We find that (1) energy efficiency is of potential appeal to all renovators regardless of their attitudes about energy efficiency, (2) energy efficiency opportunities need to be identified in the early stages of renovation when homeowners are thinking about ways to improve their home, and (3) homeowners’ intentions towards energy efficiency are weakened by uncertainty about financial benefits, helping to explain the relatively slow uptake of the Green Deal to-date. - Highlights: • Examines the impact of a major new energy policy, the Green Deal, on intentions towards energy efficiency. • 502 households questioned four months prior to, and seven months after the launch. • Renovating itself is mechanism through which households engage with the Green Deal. • Strengthening beliefs in energy savings accelerates intentions to renovate energy efficiently
[en] An earthquake is characterized by 3 parameters: magnitude, intensity and acceleration. There are 3 official scales to assess earthquakes: the Richter scale, the MSK scale and the EMS-98 scale. The construction of a nuclear power plant requires to determine the parameters of the maximal earthquake that took place in the region around the site over a 1000 year-long period. From these parameters a safety margin is added to get the safe shutdown earthquake. The dimensioning of the plant is based on the safe shutdown earthquake whose features have been increased to take into account the specificities of the site itself. (A.C.)
[en] For all PWR-type reactors built in France, the seismic risk has been taken into account as early as in the design phase. The RFS-2001-01 rule describes the method to assess the seismic risk to take into account for a site. This method is deterministic and relies on an historical study of the seismicity of the region and on a tectonic analysis of the site itself. This method allows the determination of a maximal historically likely earthquake to which an add-on factor allows the taking into account of the uncertainty. One of the measures taken after Fukushima, was the re-calculation of the seismic risk by extending to 20.000 years the 1000 year long period over which the seismic activity was assessed. The feedback of the nuclear power plants that have undergone earthquakes around the world shows an important robustness even for the Fukushima station. This robustness is certainly due to the safety margin. (A.C.)
[en] 'Full text:' Building codes and standards and the climatic design values embedded within these legal to semi-legal documents have profound safety, health and economic implications for Canada's infrastructure systems. The climatic design values that have been used for the design of almost all of today's more than $5.5 Trillion in infrastructure are based on historical climate data and assume that the extremes of the past will represent future conditions. Since new infrastructure based on codes and standards will be built to survive for decades to come, it is critically important that existing climatic design information be as accurate and up-to-date as possible, that the changing climate be monitored to detect and highlight vulnerabilities of existing infrastructure, that forensic studies of climate-related failures be undertaken and that codes and standards processes incorporate future climates and extremes as much as possible. Uncertainties in the current climate change models and their scenarios currently challenge our ability to project future extremes regionally and locally. Improvements to the spatial and temporal resolution of these climate change scenarios, along with improved methodologies to treat model biases and localize results, will allow future codes and standards to better reflect the extremes and weathering conditions expected over the lifespan of structures. In the meantime, other information and code processes can be used to incorporate changing climate conditions into upcoming infrastructure codes and standards, to “bridge” the model uncertainty gap and to complement the state of existing projections. This presentation will outline some of the varied information and processes that will be used to incorporate climate change adaptation into the next development cycle of the National Building Code of Canada and numerous other national CSA infrastructure standards. (author)