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[en] Full text: The advanced technique of single-stage dehydrogenation of n-butane and iso-pentane in adiabatic sectional with separate supply of oxygen on every section is offered. The substance of the novel method consist in water metering for every section. Such technological technique considerably cut the specific energy expenses on high temperature water steam production, increase the yield and selectivity of main products formation at the expense of more complete partial oxidation of the correspondend olefins.
[en] A hydrogen rich, low density liquid, contained within the internal volume of a cylindrical liner, was requested of the Polymers and Coatings Group (MST-7) of the Los Alamos Materials Science Division for one of the last liner driven experiments conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus facility. The experiment was a continuation of the Raleigh-Taylor hydrodynamics series of experiments and associated liners that have been described previously[1,2]
[en] LPG and butane gas sensor was manufactured. Its sensitive element is In2O3:Ga2O3 (96:4 wt.%) nano size film covered by a thin palladium catalytic layer. The technology of deposition of In2O3:Ga2O3 (96:4 wt.%) films on glass-ceramic substrates by high-frequency magnetron sputtering was developed. The surfaces of prepared films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy; the thicknesses of films were measured. The response of the glass-ceramic / In2O3:Ga2O3 (96:4 wt.%)/Pd structure depending on the thickness and sizes of grains of the film was investigated. The technological modes of sputtering were found which provide films with optimum parameters
[en] The laser-induced incandescence (LII) and cavity ring-down extinction (CRDE) optical techniques offer excellent sensitivity to allow in situ soot volume fraction measurements over a wide dynamic range. The objective of this work is to quantitatively measure the axial profiles in two n-butane premixed flames with very different stages of soot maturity and very different levels of . The first flame is a nucleation flame in which soot particles undergo only minor growth and have diameters between 2 and 4 nm. The second is a normal sooting flame generating soot from inception to mature stage. Experiments were performed by combining LII and CRDE using a laser at 1064 nm. Quantitative measurements of require the knowledge of the dependence of soot absorption function on wavelength and soot maturity. To this aim, two novel approaches were developed to evaluate the variation of at 1064 nm along the flame centerline and between 532 and 1064 nm covering the entire spectral range used in this study. The axial LII profiles were converted to absolute by CRDE measurements. The performance of the combined techniques is demonstrated in the two investigated flames for in the range of 0.013–9.7 ppb.
[en] Due to the steep increase in computational cost with the inclusion of higher-connected cluster operators in coupled-cluster applications, it is usually not practical to use such methods for larger systems or basis sets without an active space partitioning. This study generates an active space subject to unambiguous statistical criteria to define a space whose size permits treatment at the CCSDT level. The automated scheme makes it unnecessary for the user to judge whether a chosen active space is sufficient to correctly solve the problem. Two demanding applications are presented: twisted ethylene and the transition states for the bicyclo[1,1,0]butane isomerization. As bi-radicals both systems require at least a CCSDT level of theory for quantitative results, for the geometries and energies
[en] Two large-aperture, 10-cell atmospheric-pressure isobutane Cherenkov counters were designed and constructed for a SLAC streamer-chamber experiment. The rejection efficiencies for a 9 GeV/c π- were measured to be 99.84% approx. equal to 0.006% and 99.717% +- 0.008% for the two counters. The design details and performance characteristics are discussed. (orig.)
[en] This paper is dedicated to the learning of the shadowgraphy technique at graduate and undergraduate levels. It presents an experiment that allows measurement of the refractive index of butane with the help of an affordable quantitative shadowgraphy bench. The paper is constituted of two distinctive parts. The first presents the theory and data processing involved in shadowgraphy, introducing the concept of Abel inversion and modern data computer processing for graduate students. The second focuses on the experimental set-up and results; here, a qualitative interpretation of shadowgrams suitable for undergraduate students is given, as well as a quantitative explanation using a butane gas jet. The refractive index of butane measured with our simple experimental set-up is in close agreement with values available in the literature. (paper)
[en] The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs
[en] Tables are presented showing exports of propane and butane for each month of 1993. Comparisons with the same month in 1992 are included, as well as a running total. Export quantities are given in m3 by region within Canada and for Canada as a whole, and as m3/d for Canada as a whole. Average export prices in Canadian cents per liter for the same seven regions and Canada as a whole are also given. Exports show a seasonal trend, with a low of 8,681 m3/d in May and a high of 18,565 m3 in December for propane. Butane exports also show a seasonal trend with a low of 1,806 m3/d in June and a high of 9,306 m3/d in January. Propane prices ranged from 9.68 cents/l in December to 12.47 cents/l in February, compared to a range of 7.55 to 10.71 cents/l in 1992. Butane prices ranged from 9.22 cents/l in November to 12.38 cents/l in June, compared to a range of 10 to 12.78 cents/l in 1992. Total propane exports in 1993 were 4,761,795 m3 (6.8% higher than in 1992) and total butane exports were 1,974,682 m3 (13% lower than in 1992). 24 tabs