Results 1 - 10 of 1888
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[en] Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystal deposition can lead to periarticular collections associated with typical radiographic findings, most frequently observed in the shoulder. Moreover, these deposits may be revealed in other articular sites (i.e.,wrist, hand, foot, elbow, hip, etc.). Initially, the calcium deposits may appear poorly defined (cloudlike); sequently, they may reveal different patterns (linear, triangular or circular areas), changing in size, configuration and site. Adjacent bone may be normal, altough osteoporosis, cystic lesions and reactive sclerosis are reported. The radiographic appearance of calcifications will depend upon the exact location of the deposits in the specific tendon of the rotator cuff, the adjacent bursae and the soft tissues
[en] The sorption of strontium on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite samples were prepared by a wet precipitation process followed by calcination of calcium phosphate that precipitated from aqueous solution. Also, commercial hydroxyapatites were used. The sorption of strontium on hydroxyapatite depended on the method of preparation and it was pH independent ranging from 4 to 9 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The distribution coefficient Kd was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of Sr2+ and Ca2+ ions in solution with concentration above 1 x 10-3 mol dm-3. The percentage strontium sorption for commercial and by wet method prepared hydroxyapatite was in the range of 83-96%, while calcined hydroxyapatite was ranging from 10 to 30%. The experimental data for sorption of strontium have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm. The sorption of Sr2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite. Although calcined hydroxyapatite is successfully used as biomaterial for hard tissues repair, it is not used for the treatment of liquid wastes. (author)
[en] The Savannah River Site Environmental Bioassay Lab participated in the 2007 NRIP Emergency Response program administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in May, 2007. A new rapid column separation method was applied directly to the NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples, with only minimal sample preparation to reduce preparation time. Calcium phosphate precipitation, used to preconcentrate actinides and 90Sr in NRIP 2006 urine and water samples, was not used for the NRIP 2007 urine samples. Instead, the raw urine was acidified and passed directly through the stacked resin columns (TEVA+TRU+SR-Resins) to separate the actinides and 90Sr from the NRIP urine samples more quickly. This improvement reduced sample preparation time for the NRIP 2007 emergency urine analyses significantly. This approach works well for small volume urine samples expected during an emergency response event. Based on initial feedback from NIST, the SRS Environmental Bioassay Lab had the most rapid analysis times for actinides and 90Sr analyses for NRIP 2007 emergency urine samples. (author)
[en] Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cements are typically prepared using β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as the base component. However, hydroxyapatite (HA) is an interesting alternative because of its potential for reducing cement acidity, as well as modulating cement properties via ionic substitutions. In the present study, we have characterized DCPD cements prepared with a novel formulation based on monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and HA. Cements were prepared using a 4:1 MCPM:HA molar ratio. The reactivity of HA in this system was verified by showing DCPD formation using poorly crystalline HA, as well as highly crystalline HA. Evaluation of cements prepared with poorly crystalline HA revealed that setting occurs rapidly in the MCPM/HA system, and that the use of a setting regulator is necessary to maintain workability of the cement paste. Compressive testing showed that MCPM/HA cements have strengths comparable to what has previously been published for DCPD cements. However, preliminary in vitro analysis of cement degradation revealed that conversion of DCPD to HA may occur much more rapidly in the MCPM/HA system compared to cements prepared with β-TCP. Future studies should investigate this property further, as it could have important implications for the use of HA-based DCPD cement formulations.
[en] Apatitic calcium phosphates are used as coating to improve the fixation of orthopaedic and dental implants. The commercial technique to produce these coatings (plasma-spray) shows some problems of adherence and control of their physicochemical properties. In this communication laser ablation is presented as a solution to overcome these problems. The ablation system consists in a vacuum chamber filled with water vapour up to the desired pressure. The laser beam of an ArF excimer laser is focused on a hydroxyapatite target, and the coating is deposited on a substrate parallel to the target maintained at certain temperature. The physicochemical properties of the material were analysed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy (EDX). Taking into account these results, two types of coatings were choose to asses their bio compatibility in vitro. (Author) 15 refs
[en] Transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) promotes the development of vascular calcifications such as arteriosclerosis. The aim was to investigate effects of specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components on transdifferentiation of VSMC to identify novel ECM-based therapeutic tools. Human collagens I & IV (CI, CIV) along with collagen XIV (CXIV) and a CXIV-derived fragment (CXIV-F), both of which induce differentiation, were applied in an in-vitro model of calcium-/phosphate (Ca/P)-induced osteochondrocytic transdifferentiation of human and murine VSMC. Transdifferentiation was determined by RT-PCR and calcium contents of VSMC cultures. Signaling pathways involved were determined by western-blot and luciferase reporter plasmid assays. Under normal culture conditions, CI induced VSMC proliferation and a more epithelioid/synthetic phenotype while CIV and predominantly CXIV provoked opposite effects. CIV and CXIV further blocked Ca/P-induced osteochondrocytic transdifferentiation of VSMC displayed e.g. by reduced gene expressions of Runx2, Sox9, osterix and increased expressions of αSMA and SM22α. This involved impaired activation of ERK1/2, NF-ĸB and Wnt-signaling. Similar preventive effects were achieved by applying CXIV-F. Impaired preventive effects of CXIV by co-treatment with a cluster of differentiation (CD)44 agonist propose CD44 as a CXIV-target structure on VSMC. In conclusion, CXIV and CXIV-F interfere with osteochondrocytic transdifferentiation of VSMC and should be further explored as potential therapeutic tools in vascular calcification. - Highlights: • Collagen XIV maintains a quiescent contractile VSMC phenotype. • Collagen XIV blocks mineral-induced osteochondrocytic VSMC transdifferentiation. • Similar preventive effects were observed for a Collagen XIV-derived fragment. • Collagen XIV reduces activation of ERK1/2, NF-ĸB- and Wnt-signaling in VSMC. • Data point to CD44 as a target structure of collagen XIV on VSMC.
[en] An evaluation was made of the efficiency of calcium phosphatic compounds (MCP, DCPD and HA) of various particle sizes when added to alkaline and calcareous soils, using the (y%) values and the utilization percentages as measurements corresponding to effectiveness. The data obtained revealed that these two measurements were greatly influenced by the water solubility and the granule size fractions of the phosphatic compounds in addition to the length of the cropping period. In the case of MCP, coarser granules resulted in an increase in the portion of P derived from the fertilizer by plants (y% values) when compared with the finer particle size fractions in both alluvial and highly caleareous soils. The sparingly soluble phosphate (DCPD) and the less acting HA showed an opposite trend because decreasing the particle size fractions increased of the y% values. The y % values of particle size fractions of MCP. DEPD and HA, shown in four successive cuts of rye grass, had the following descending order MCP DCPD HA for each cut and each particle size during the cropping period. Taking the soil type into consideration, y % values derived from these phosphatic compounds and their utilization percentages were more pronounced in the alluvial than in the calcareous soil. This reflects a much higher rate of phosphate fixation and a much lower phosphate mobility in calcareous soils apparently due to its high content of calcium carbonate
[en] In the present work the effects of the addition of some poly electrolytes (sodium alginate and poly acrylic acid) on the solubility, crystalline phases, pH and mechanical strength under compression of three calcium phosphate cements were studied. (author)
[en] In this review, the current knowledge of signal molecules-calcium phosphate coprecipitation and its biomedical application as a functional coating are described. Although signal molecules regulate a variety of cellular processes, it is difficult to sustain the regulation activity for a long term when the signal molecules are only injected in a free form. The signal molecules-calcium phosphate coprecipitation on a substrate surface is a very promising process to achieve sustained regulation activity of the signal molecules by controlled and localized delivery of the signal molecules to specific body sites (implantation sites). However, the significance of immobilizing signal molecules with calcium phosphate coatings and their biomedical application are not systematically illustrated. For this purpose, the presently existing coprecipitation methods and strategies on biomedical application are summarized and discussed. (topical review)