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[en] Conditions in the malonic ester synthesis for various α-(11C-methyl)-carboxylic acids including 11CH3CH2CO2H were studied especially in view of rapidity and ease. The labelling provided to usually proceed fairly rapidly in a good yield. Also, 11CH3CH2CO2H was synthesized as an example of preparing (β-11C-ethyl)-ketones from β-diketones or acylacetic esters and 11CH3I. Some of the products are effectively used, together with corresponding 14C compounds, in metabolic studies by double tracer method. (author). 3 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab
[en] [1',3',4'-3H3]4-(5',6',7',8'-Tetrahydro-5',5',8',8'-tetramet hyl-2'-anthra-cenyl)benzoic acid (specific activity 64 Ci/mmole) was synthesized by bromination of ethyl 4-(5',6',7',8'-tetrahydro-5',5',8',8'-tetramethyl-2'-anthracenyl)benzoate, followed by reductive debromination by tritium gas in the presence of 10% palladium on carbon and hydrolysis. 1H and 3H NMR spectroscopy was used to establish tritium at 1',3',4'-tetrahydroanthracenyl ring positions. (Author)
[en] Carboxylic acid groups were functionalized to MWNTs using some aqueous acid solutions and the resultant carboxylated MWNTs were in detail analyzed through structural characterizations. The characteristic Bragg peaks of pristine MWNTs were analyzed by XRD measurements. After acid treatment the diffraction peaks (100), (101), and (102) of pristine MWNTs disappeared, but the diffraction peak (002) was maintained in the carboxylated MWNTs. The structural and chemical changes after carboxylation of MWNTs improved the dispersibility of the resultant carboxylated MWNTs in water
[en] Synthesis, purification and characterization of [4-ethoxycarbonyl-4'-carboxy-2,2'-bipyridine]bis(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) hexafluorophosphate is described. This complex is shown to be electrochemiluminescent in aqueous solution during cathodic pulse polarization of thin insulating film-coated electrodes. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) lifetime of the complex was observed to be ca. 40 μs at oxide-coated n-silicon electrodes; thus time-resolved detection is also possible. The ECL emission maximum of this carboxylate derivative is somewhat red-shifted when compared with an unmodified Ru(bpy)32+. Because the present complex can be easily covalently coupled with antibodies and oligonucleotides it is usable as an electrochemiluminescent label in various bioaffinity assays. The present chelates also produce strong chemiluminescence during dissolution of metallic magnesium in aqueous solution
[en] The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved. The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved. ACBP is a carrier for activated long-chain fatty acids and has been associated with many aspects of lipid metabolism. Its secondary structure is highly similar to that of the corresponding form of bovine ACBP and exhibits the unique flattened α-helical bundle (up–down–down–up) motif reported for animal, yeast and insect ACBPs. Conformational differences are located in loops and turns, although these structural differences do not suffice to account for features that could be related to the unusual biochemistry and lipid metabolism of the Harderian gland
[en] The objective of the current study was to assess the influence of a modified crushing process and kneading operation on the quality parameters, volatile compounds, and the fatty acid and sterol profiles of virgin olive oil from the Edremit yaglik variety. In the study, olive oil samples were produced in two different processes. The first one was produced without malaxation and the second one was produced with the malaxing process. During crushing, the effect of different temperatures was tested. The results demonstrate that different crushing temperatures generally did not affect the amount of free fatty acids, or peroxide value. Total phenol contents were positively affected by the additional malaxation process. Fatty acids and sterol composition were not significantly altered at different crushing temperatures or during the subsequent malaxation application. PCA enabled a clear classification of the oils obtained from different processing techniques.
[es]El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la influencia de un proceso de molturación modificado y de la etapa de batido sobre los parámetros de calidad, los componentes volátiles, los ácidos grasos y el perfil de esteroles de aceites de oliva virgen de la variedad Edremit yaglik. En este estudio, las muestras de aceite de oliva se obtuvieron mediante dos procesos diferentes con y sin malaxación. Durante la trituración, se probó el efecto de diferentes temperaturas. Los resultados demostraron que las diferentes temperaturas de trituración, en general, no mostraron tener efecto sobre la cantidad de ácidos grasos libres o el índice de peróxido. El contenido total de fenoles se vio afectado positivamente por el empleo de malaxación. La composición de ácidos grasos y de esteroles no se vieron afectados significativamente por el aumento de la temperatura en la trituración ni durante el proceso de malaxación. PCA permitió una clasificación clara de los aceites obtenidos mediante las diferentes técnicas de procesamiento.
[en] The composition and distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerol (TAG) molecules are commonly considered as factors that determine the physical properties of a given oil or fat. The distribution of any fatty acid in fats and oils can be described through the α coefficient of asymmetry, which can be calculated from the TAG composition and fatty acid composition of the Sn-2 position of the TAGs determined through lipase hydrolysis. High-oleic high-stearic oils and fats are considered stable and healthy, and they are good substitutes for hydrogenated vegetable oils and palm fractions in many food products, such as spreads and confectionery. Here, different high-oleic high-stearic acid oils were formulated which contained different distributions of saturated fatty acids in their TAGs, while maintaining a similar fatty acid composition. The aim of this work was to discuss the possibility of using the α coefficient to predict the physical properties of fats in function of their chemical composition and their melting and crystallization behavior as examined by differential scanning calorimetry.
[en] The content and composition of the fatty acids (F As) and astaxanthin (AST) in the edible forms of crayfish: the whole animal of Cambarellus (C.) montezumae, and the tail meat (TM) of Procambarus (M.) bouvieri were determined by GC and HPLC. The exoskeleton (EXK) of P. (M.) bouvieri was also studied. Unsaturated FAs, and mostly oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), were predominant in both edible forms. The contents of the polyunsaturated eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 n-3, EPA), arachidonic (C20:4 n-6, ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA), were higher in the TM of P. (M.) bouvieri than in the complete C. (C.) montezumae (p<0.05). Total carotenoids ranged between 2.31 ± 0.33 μg·g−1 and 66.3 ± 3.91 μg·g−1, and were composed mainly of AST (>79.50%). AST esters were enriched with saturated FAs in C. (C.) montezumae and with PUFAs in EXK of P. (M.) bouvieri. We conclude that both C. (C.) montezumae and the TM of P. (M.) bouvieri are traditional foods rich in n-3 PUFAs and C. (C.) montezumae in AST. The EXK of P. (M.) bouvieri is a rich potential source of AST, n-3 PUFAs, and the combination AST-DHA.
[es]Se determinó por GC y HPLC el contenido y composición de ácidos grasos (AGs) y astaxantina (AST), en dos formas comestibles de acocil: el animal completo de Cambarellus (C.) montezumae, y el músculo de la cola (MC) de Procambarus (M.) bouvieri. Adicionalmente, se estudió el exosqueleto (EXK) de P. (M.) bouvieri. En ambas formas comestibles predominaron los AGs insaturados. Los contenidos de ácido eicosapentaenoico (C20:5 n-3, EPA), araquidónico (C20:4 n-6, ARA) y docosahexaenoico (C22: 6 n-3, DHA), fueron mayores en el MC que en C. (C) montezumae (p<0,05). Los carotenoides totales oscilaron de 2.3 ± 0.3 μg·g−1 a 66.3 ± 3.9 μg·g−1, con predominancia de AST (>79.50%). Los ésteres de AST en C. (C.) montezumae fueron enriquecidos con AGs saturados mientras que los del EXK de P. (M.) bouvieri con AGs poliinsaturados. Se concluyó que tanto C. (C.) montezumae como el MC de P. (M.) bouvieri, son alimentos tradicionales ricos en PUFAs n-3, y C. (C.) montezumae en AST. El EXK de P.(M.) bouvieri abunda en AST, PUFAs n-3, y en la combinación AST-DHA