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[en] Highlights: • The elastic modulus of the enzymatically digested LDL was evaluated using AFM. • The LDL elastic modulus was decreased not by proteases but by phospholipase A2. • The LDL size was unaffected by proteases or PLA2. Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) induces development of cardiovascular disease. Recently, reports of studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM) have described that the elastic modulus of metal-induced oxidized LDLs is lower than the modulus before oxidation. However, the mechanisms of change of the elastic modulus have not been well investigated. We postulated that disorder of the LDL structure might decrease the elastic modulus. This study measured the elastic modulus of LDLs before and after enzyme treatment with V8 protease, α-chymotrypsin, and phospholipase A2. After LDLs were obtained from serum by ultracentrifugation, LDLs or enzyme-treated LDLs were physically absorbed. They were crowded on a mica surface. Although V8 protease and α-chymotrypsin did not induce the elastic modulus change, treatment with PLA2 decreased the elastic modulus. The LDL particle size did not change during the enzyme treatment. Results suggest that disordering of the lipid structure of the LDL might contribute to the elastic modulus change. Results show that AFM might be a useful tool to evaluate disorders of complex nanoscale particle structures from lipids and proteins such as lipoproteins.
[en] Results are given for 23 patients including 19 tricuspid deficiencies, 9 surgical cases of which 5 had been examined before surgery, 2 were followed twice after surgery and 3 before. From a study of the aorta curve it seems possible: to diagnose a tricuspid deficiency in a patient with a complex heart disease, though for want of enough experience the reliability of this examination cannot be quaranteed in adiastolic cases nor above all when an added respiratory deficiency is present; to determine the magnitude of the leakage from the tricuscip regurgitation index measurement
[fr]On a rappote les resultats obtenus chez 23 malades comprenant: 19 insuffisances tricuspidiennes, 9 malades operes dont 5 avaient ete examines en pre-operatoire, 2 malades ont ete suivis a deux reprises en post-operatoire et 3 en pre-operatoire. L'etude de la courbe aortique semble permettre: d'affirmer l'existence d'une insuffisance tricuspidienne chez un malade porteur d'une cardiopathie complexe (on ne peut toutefois faute d'experience suffisante garantir la fiabilite de cet examen en cas d'adiastolie et surtout d'insuffisance respiratoire surajoutee); de preciser l'importance de cette fuite avec la mesure de l'indice de regurgitation triscuspidien