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[en] Numerous research studies have been conducted to access growth and meat characteristic differences between bulls and steers. In general, results have indicated that bulls grow more rapidly (15 to 17%), utilize feed more efficiently (10 to 13%) to an age or weight end point, and produce higher yielding carcasses with less fat and more muscle than steers. Steers have a slowly growth rate, more intramuscular fat, tenderer meat as compared with bulls. For further study on muscle gene expression profiles between bulls and steers, we constructed subtracted cDNA libraries between Longissimus muscles from three Chinese Simmental steers and three Chinese Simmental bulls with same age and same raising condition using suppression subtractive hybridization, genes that were differentially expressed in steer vs. bull Longissimus muscle were identified. More than 300 clones were randomly selected from each subtracted cDNA library. By PCR analysis, 223 positive clones were isolated from the subtracted cDNA libraries, by steers as Tester, bulls as Driver, respectively. By Longissimus muscles from steers and bulls cDNA as probes, high-throughput screening was carried out. We selected 84 differential expressed clones for further analysis, which showed that they represent 10 ESTs, all of them are known in cattle. Three functional genes, which are ACTG2, TPM2 and IGF-1, were chosen to do qRT-PCR to confirm the expression differentiation between steer LD tissue and bull LD tissue. The genes expressed in the former tissue were 1.96, 2.41, 2.89 times higher, respectively, than in the later tissue. These results implied that new candidate genes could be selected form the SSH library constructed in this research, and this could be a way to make the base of steer muscle special trait. (author)
[en] This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure and the diversity between 2 local cattle breeds from Bulgaria, the Rhodope Shorthorn and Grey cattle. A panel of 11 microsatellites was used for the evaluation. For these loci, allele frequencies, heterozygosity, HWE, genetic disequilibrium were determined. Both populations displayed a relatively high level of genetic variation as estimated by allelic diversity and heterozygosity. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.5424 /SPS 115/ to 0.8983 /TGLA 227/ for the Rhodope population and 0.6333 /TGLA 53/ to 0.9333 /TGLA227/ for Grey cattle, with similar average values for the two groups - 0.7858 and 0.7757. This study contributes to the knowledge of the genetic diversity, genetic structure and to the molecular characterization of small populations on the brink of extinction. Since the actual implementation of a sustainable program for the conservation of animal genetic resources requires a wide variety of technologies and approaches it is now possible to characterize them at DNA level. Both Grey and Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breeds were genetically characterized by using DNA markers. The characterization of Bulgarian cattle local breeds with microsatellite loci is useful to identify high informative markers for each breed while simultaneously would facilitate the genotypic identification. All loci were polymorphic and this indicates that the microsatellite markers used are suitable for genetic diversity study. The comparison between the two local breeds shows that they display a remarkable high variability. This clearly suggests that these breeds have potential value to be preserved as genetic resources. The highest value of Bulgarian local breeds is determined of the genes they possess as a source of their excellent adaptive capabilities, high resistance to diseases and ability of good meat and milk quality. More work and analysis will be required in the future to increase the efficiency of studying a larger number of microsatellites. Additional information on productive, morphological, and fitness-related traits of these breeds is needed, however, as these factors should also be taken into account when ranking breeds for preservation purposes. (author)
[en] The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved. The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved. ACBP is a carrier for activated long-chain fatty acids and has been associated with many aspects of lipid metabolism. Its secondary structure is highly similar to that of the corresponding form of bovine ACBP and exhibits the unique flattened α-helical bundle (up–down–down–up) motif reported for animal, yeast and insect ACBPs. Conformational differences are located in loops and turns, although these structural differences do not suffice to account for features that could be related to the unusual biochemistry and lipid metabolism of the Harderian gland
[en] Highlights: • JDV Vif recruits ELOB/C, Cul2 and RBX1 without CBF-β to form E3 ligase. • JDV Vif breaks through the restriction via degrading btA3s by forming E3 ligase. • BC-box (T149LQ151) motif in JDV Vif is required for ELOB/C binding. • Cul2 box and a zinc-binding motif in JDV Vif are required for Cul2 binding. Viral infectivity factor (Vif) encoded by lentiviruses is essential for viral replication and escaping from antiviral activity of host defensive factors APOBEC3. Jembrana disease virus (JDV) causes an acute disease syndrome with approximately 20% case fatality rate in Bali cattle. However, the interplay mechanism between JDV Vif and Bos taurus APOBEC3 (btA3) is poorly understood. In this study, we determined that JDV Vif recruits ElonginB, ElonginC(ELOB/C), Cul2 and RBX1 but without the need of CBF-β to form E3 ubiquitin ligase and induces the degradation of btA3 proteins. Further investigation identified BC-box (T149LQ151) motif required for ELOB/C binding, Cul2 box (Y167xxxxV/X172) and a zinc-binding motif (H95-C113-H115-C133) required for Cul2 binding in JDV Vif. The precise mechanism of JDV Vif overcoming the antiviral activity of btA3 proteins is helpful for the application of the broad spectrum antiviral drug targeting conserved functional domains of various species Vif proteins in the future.
[en] Livestock development in the SAP is essential to fulfil the increasing demand for livestock products in the region. Strategies that incorporate the genetic resources existing locally and active farmer participation are essential to achieve sustainable livestock development and genetic improvement in the region. A three-stage genetic improvement programme is a feasible approach and logical medium to the long term goal for striking a balance between genetic progress and breed adaptation. A combination of CNBS and/or GNBS with good links to the crossbreeding programmes are essential to achieve consistent genetic gain and to produce genetically superior animals for upgrading the commercial herd. (author)
[en] To determine the optimized protocol for bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA), using dual internally cooled wet (ICW) electrodes in the ex vivo bovine liver. RFA was applied to the explanted bovine liver, using two 3 cm active tip electrodes with 3.5 cm spacing. A total of 25 ablation zones were created by five groups; group A: 70 W-20 minute (min), group B: 70 W-25 min, group C: 90 W-15 min, group D: 90 W-20 min, and group E: 90 W-25 min. We measured the total energy and size of ablation zones with a color of grey or pink. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney U-test. The mean energy, mean volume of ablation zone with grey and pink color of groups A to E were 16.7, 23.9, 16.7, 21.8, 29.2 kcal, 25.7, 34.3, 29.5, 36.2, 45.2 cm3, and 60.0, 88.0, 71.5, 87.4, 104.5 cm3, respectively. Those were significantly different (p < 0.05). The volume of ablation zone of group E with grey color was larger than groups A, B and C (p < 0.05). Bipolar RFA, using dual ICW electrodes, can produce a large ablation zone with the protocol of 90 W-25 min.
[en] This study determined the nucleotide sequence and polymorphism in 5'flanking region of HSP70-2 gene in semen samples from 10 Holstein Friesian bulls. The Bos Taurus HSP70-2 gene sequence deposited in Gene Bank under the accession number BTU02892 (http:/www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.) was used to design PCR primers using software GeneFisher. The forward primer: 5' CTGTTTCCTCCAGCGAA 3' and reverse primer: 5' GCTTTTTCGGCTCCGAA 3' were designed for PCR reactions to amplify specific regions of the 5'flanking region of the HSP70-2 gene. The PCR reactions carried out in the 25 μl. of 1X Taq buffer (Promega), 2mM MgCl2, 0.1mM dNTP, 0.5 μM Primer F, 0.5 μM Primer R, 40 ng genomic DNA and 1 unit Taq DNA polymerase (Promega). The amplification conditions were as follows: initial denaturing at 95 deg. C for 5 min, followed by 40 cycles of 1 min denaturing at 95 deg. C, primer annealing at 55 deg. C for 1 min, at 72 deg. C for 1 min, and final elongation at 72 deg. C for 5 min. The resulting PCR products were purified using Wizard SV gel and PCR clean-Up system (Promega). Purified PCR products were ligated into the pGEM-T Easy vector (Promega), transformed into E. coli JM109 cells and plated on 2 x YT (16 g l-1 tryptone, 10 g l-1 yeast extract, and 5gl-1 NaCl) agar plates containing 100 μg/mL ampicillin. Plasmid DNA was isolated from ampicillin-resistant transformants using the alkaline lysis method. The presence of inserts was determined by Eco RI restriction analysis. The nucleotides sequences were determined by automate DNA sequencer (MegaBACE 1000 and ALFexpress sequencers). The diversity and identity of the sequences of the cloned from individual bull were analyzed with software Clustal W. Nucleotide substitutions, deletions and insertions were analyzed as well. Alignment of the DNA sequence (DNAstar MegAlign) of the 5'flanking region of the HSP70-2 gene of ten HF bulls showed polymorphism in 3 bulls. Two polymorphic sites were found: one nucleotide deletion (G) on position 61 and nucleotide substitution (A→ G) on position 241
[en] In this paper the authors present their findings on the isolation and characterisation, including sequence, of two forms of inhibin from bovine follicular fluid (bFF) and the subsequent development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure which is applicable to follicular fluid and serum. (Auth.)
[en] The principal objective of this study was to determinate the post-partum ovarian activity in milking cows of high and low production in one farm of ecuadorian highland. For this experiment was necessary to use 48 animals between second and sith calving, the milk samples were collected according one pre-stablished protocol and the same was: one sample 5th or 6th days, twice a week until the cows were pregnacy and 180 days after parturitium if the cow is open. Additional data were compiled in each farm and both the results of the progesterone by RIA were used to determinate the diferents reproductive parameters in the post-partum of the cows. The most of reproductives parameters in the post-partum of the cows in the both group didn't have significance but the conception rate, services per conception, number of pregnacy cows and percentaje of non visibles heats had one high significance between the treatments