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[en] Highlights: • 38 novel picobirnavirus sequences are identified. • Prokaryotic RBS sequences are enriched among known and novel picobirnaviruses. • RBS sequences are enriched among prokaryotic but not eukaryotic viral genomes and families. Currently, the Leviviridae and Cystoviridae are the only two recognized families of prokaryotic RNA viruses. Picobirnaviruses, which are bisegmented double-stranded RNA viruses commonly found in animal stool samples, are currently thought to be animal viruses, but have not been propagated in cell culture or in an animal model. We hypothesize that picobirnaviruses are prokaryotic RNA viruses. We identified and analyzed the genomes of 38 novel picobirnaviruses and determined that a classical bacterial sequence motif, the ribosomal binding site (RBS), is present in the 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs) of all of the novel as well as all previously published picobirnavirus sequences. Among all viruses, enrichment of the RBS motif is only observed in viral families that infect prokaryotes and not in eukaryotic infecting viral families. These results will enable future studies to more accurately understand the biology of picobirnaviruses.
[en] Highlights: • Clinical isolates of HCoV-OC43 and -HKU1 were isolated from ALI-cultured HBTE cells. • Clinical isolates of HCoVs preferred the TMRRSS2 to cathepsins for cell entry. • Cell culture adapted HCoV-OC43 lost the ability to replicate in HBTE-ALI culture. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) enter cells via two distinct pathways: the endosomal pathway using cathepsins to activate spike protein and the cell-surface or early endosome pathway using extracellular proteases such as transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). We previously reported that clinical isolates of HCoV-229E preferred cell-surface TMPRSS2 to endosomal cathepsin for cell entry, and that they acquired the ability to use cathepsin L by repeated passage in cultured cells and were then able to enter cells via the endosomal pathway. Here, we show that clinical isolates of HCoV-OC43 and -HKU1 preferred the cell-surface TMRRSS2 to endosomal cathepsins for cell entry, similar to HCoV-229E. In addition, the cell-culture-adapted HCoV-OC43 lost the ability to infect and replicate in air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial tracheal epithelial cells. These results suggest that circulating HCoVs in the field generally use cell-surface TMPRSS2 for cell entry, not endosomal cathepsins, in human airway epithelial cells.
[en] Glioblastomas are highly diffuse, malignant tumors that have so far evaded clinical treatment. The strongly invasive behavior of cells in these tumors makes them very resistant to treatment, and for this reason both experimental and theoretical efforts have been directed toward understanding the spatiotemporal pattern of tumor spreading. Although usual models assume a standard diffusion behavior, recent experiments with cell cultures indicate that cells tend to move in directions close to that of glioblastoma invasion, thus indicating that a biased random walk model may be much more appropriate. Here we show analytically that, for realistic parameter values, the speeds predicted by biased dispersal are consistent with experimentally measured data. We also find that models beyond reaction–diffusion–advection equations are necessary to capture this substantial effect of biased dispersal on glioblastoma spread. (paper)
[en] The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1 h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC50 values of ∼ 100-150 μM when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.
[en] For crop improvement the uses of tissue culture are multiple; tissue culture alone is important in clonal propagation and for developing new genotypes. Together with other techniques such as the ones used in mutation breeding, tissue culture will increase the chance for mutations to occur by increasing the number of meristems per area of treatment. With this combination of techniques there is the possibility of developing better crops in a shorter period, thus complementing the work done by nature and by traditional breeding methodology. This is important since world population is expected to double by the year 2000, which is only 18 years away. Tissue culture is a general term used to describe any method of aseptic culture, i.e. meristem, callus, cell, shoot tip, anther culture, etc
[en] Cell alignment is widely found in various tissues and organs in vivo, thus engineering of cell alignment is a significant issue in tissue engineering. Near-field melt electrospinning (NMES) is an emerging technique to produce polymer microfibers, which has been increasingly used to prepare scaffold; however, the effect of NMES micro-pattern on cell orientation guidance such as cell alignment has not been investigated systematically yet. In this study, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) micro-line array was fabricated by NMES for cell alignment studies. Different from most previous reports, PCL micro-line array with improved fiber deposition accuracy and decreased fiber spacing (small to 10 μm) was achieved by regulating the applied voltage and nozzle-to-collector distance. Cell alignment was observed on PCL micro-line arrays and the alignment effect weakened with the increase of the space between micro-lines. By MTT analysis, cells cultured on NMES PCL micro-line arrays showed better viability than that on plain substrate without PCL, which was advantageous over conventional electrospun nanofibers. (paper)
[en] The ROS1 fusion gene has been identified in approximately 1% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Several clinical studies have highlighted ROS1 as a promising therapeutic target because crizotinib, a multi-targeted drug against ROS1, ALK, and the MET proto-oncogene, has elicited remarkable responses in ROS1-rearrangements NSCLC. However, acquired resistance mediated by ROS1 kinase domain mutations has been identified and a system to assess ROS1 inhibitors for these resistant mutations is necessary for the promotion of drug development. Publicly available NSCLC cell lines harboring the ROS1 fusion gene are limited to only HCC78 cells carrying SLC34A2-ROS1. This cell line exhibits resistance to ROS1 inhibitors through activation of the EGFR pathway, although the cells were established from ROS1-TKI naïve pleural effusion. Here, we demonstrate that 3D culture with gellan gum can restore the ROS1 oncogene dependence of HCC78 cells by upregulating the expression of the ROS1 fusion gene and reducing the activity of the EGFR pathway. Moreover, we established the HCC78xe3 cell line, a subclone of the HCC78 cell line, by repeated in vitro cultures from tumor xenografts and created xenograft tumors three times using in vitro cultured cells. This eventually enabled us to engraft and stably grow the cells in vivo, and subsequently evaluate various ROS1 inhibitors against HCC78xe3 cells by overexpressing crizotinib-resistant mutations in the ROS1 kinase domain including G2032R and D2033 N. We newly found that lorlatinib, a next generation ROS1/ALK inhibitor, remain the activity against D2033 N mutation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that HCC78xe3 cells expressing SLC34A2-ROS1 G2032R, and D2033 N, but not wild type (WT) cells, were resistant to crizotinib in vivo. Taken together, our data suggested that 3D cultures of HCC78 might reflect the features in patients and this new system will be a useful tool for evaluating ROS1 inhibitors.