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[en] Soft tissue sarcomas comprise approximately 1% of malignant tumors. There are more than 50 subtypes, but pleomorphic sarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor account for 75%. Differentiation between these subtypes is difficult because they often present with a painless enlarging mass, and share many histological and MR imaging features. Nonetheless, subdifferentiation is important because the different subtypes have different prognoses and therapeutic strategies. In this manuscript we discuss the clinical, histological, and MR imaging features of soft tissue sarcomas according to the WHO classification. An overview is provided and differentiating features are discussed that can help to narrow down the differential diagnosis. (orig.)
[en] Highlights: • Apt exclusively expresses in NB6-4T cells. • Apt controls NB6-4T differentiation. • Apt activates the expression of Cyc E in neuronal cells. • Gcm represses the expression of CycE through Apt in glial cells. In Drosophila, the thoracic neuroblast 6-4 (NB6-4T) divides asymmetrically into a glial precursor and a neuronal precursor, while the abdominal neuroblast 6-4 (NB6-4A) divides symmetrically to produce two glial cells. The underlying mechanism by which NB6-4T and NB6-4A undergo distinct differentiation is still elusive. Here, we find that the transcription factor Apontic (Apt) exclusively expresses in NB6-4T cells and is involved in regulating NB6-4T differentiation. Loss of Apt results in neuronal precursor loss. Epistasis analysis shows that Apt controls NB6-4T differentiation through activating CycE expression. On the other hand, Gcm suppresses Apt expression in the NB6-4A cell, thus inhibiting CycE expression. Taken together, our findings reveal a Gcm-Apt-CycE axis that regulates neuroblast and glia cell differentiation.
[en] T helper 17 (Th17) cells has proven to be crucial in the pathogenesis of severe asthma. Although it is known that Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is involved in differentiation of Th17 cells but, how it affects severe asthma is uncertain. Since previous studies indicated that Methtyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) null mice was deficient in Th17 cell differentiation, the aim of the present study was to understand how MBD2 interacts with SOCS3 to regulate Th17 cell differentiation in severe asthma. Here, we show that SOCS3 expression was significantly decreased in Th17-mediated severe asthmatic mice, accompanied by elevated STAT3 phosphorylation and RORγt expression. Knock-down of SOCS3 promoted the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th17 cells through STAT3/RORγt pathway. Meanwhile, MBD2 was overexpressed in Th17-mediated severe asthmatic mice. Intervention of MBD2 expression lead to a negative change of SOCS3 expression, whereas the differentiation of Th17 cells showed positive change. In addition, MBD2 knockout (MBD2-KO) mice displayed increased SOCS3 expression and decreased Th17 differentiation after severe asthma modeling. Taken together, our results suggest that MBD2 might facilitate Th17 cell differentiation via down-regulating SOCS3 expression in severe asthma. These findings uncover new roles for SOCS3 and MBD2, and provide a potential target for treatment of severe asthma.
[en] Highlights: • CTLA-4 deficiency leads to spontaneous humoural autoimmune intestinal injury. • CTLA-4 deficiency leads to differentiation obstacles in Tfr cells. • A Tfr shortage leads to non-specific humoural immunity enhancement. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a co-inhibitory molecule expressed by T cells and is required for immune regulation and inflammation prevention. In clinical patients, the CTLA-4 mutation causes spontaneous immune-related early-onset Crohn's disease; however, its potential mechanism is still unknown. In the current study, we found that defects in CTLA-4 in CD4 cells lead to limited differentiation of T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells and relatively increased T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and spontaneous B cell germinal centres (GCs) responses that trigger the accumulation of autoantibodies in intestinal epithelial cells. In addition, the deficiency of Tfr cells caused by defects in CTLA-4 causes these cells to lose their function of inhibiting the non-specific immune response produced during the specific humoural immune response induced by MCMV (mouse cytomegalovirus), resulting in acute intestinal injury and death in mice. The lack of Tfr cells may be responsible for the immunosuppressive disorder of inflammatory bowel disease caused by CTLA-4 deficiency. In conclusion, we verified that CTLA-4 may be required for Tfr cell differentiation and production. Tfr cells inhibit B cell responses and prevent humoural autoimmune-mediated intestinal damage by regulating Tfh-dependent GC responses.
[en] Lamin A is a nuclear lamina constituent implicated in a number of human disorders including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Since increasing evidence suggests a role of the lamin A precursor in nuclear functions, we investigated the processing of prelamin A during differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblasts. We show that both protein levels and cellular localization of prelamin A are modulated during myoblast activation. Similar changes of lamin A-binding proteins emerin and LAP2α were observed. Furthermore, prelamin A was found in a complex with LAP2α in differentiating myoblasts. Prelamin A accumulation in cycling myoblasts by expressing unprocessable mutants affected LAP2α and PCNA amount and increased caveolin 3 mRNA and protein levels, while accumulation of prelamin A in differentiated muscle cells following treatment with a farnesyl transferase inhibitor appeared to inhibit caveolin 3 expression. Our data provide evidence for a critical role of the lamin A precursor in the early steps of muscle cell differentiation
[en] Studies have demonstrated that differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes is a complex phenomenon that requires sufficient inducing factors at various time points. Cardiac extracellular matrix (cECM) could provide tissue specific microenvironment and act as an inductive template for efficient cell differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cECM on differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into cardiomyocytes using cECM hydrogel in combination with a cardiac inductive cocktail. hADSCs were cultured on ECM-coated plates with and without inductive cocktail for 3weeks. qRT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to evaluate the expression pattern of special cardiac genes and proteins. When hADSCs were cultured in the presence of cECM cardiac genes including GATA4, HAND1, HAND2, NKX2.5, Troponin I, βMHC, Connexin43 were highly expressed in differentiated cells. Also Connexin43, cTnI and βMHC proteins were expressed as well. We could show that cECM by itself could affect viability, proliferation and differentiation of hADSCs. However, combination of cECM with a cardiac inducing cocktail could improve the results.
[en] A descriptive, retrospective study of patients with histopathologic diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell and adenocarcinoma of sebaceous glands, assisted in the service of oculoplasty the Cuban Institute of Ophthalmology January 2005 to December 2010. It was included 109 patients; we analyzed age, sex, skin color, clinical symptoms, anatomic location, degree of cell differentiation and annual basis
[en] Highlights: • Mitochondrial fusion and fission are essential in mouse embryogenesis, and cell differentiation. • The mitochondrial shape changes in differentiation and dedifferentiation. • Mitochondrial dynamics act as a hub to consolidate intra-and-extracellular signals in cell differentiation. Cells differentiate into specific and functional lineages to build up tissues. It has been shown in several tissues that mitochondrial morphology, levels of “mitochondria-shaping” proteins, and mitochondrial functions change upon differentiation. In this review, we highlight the significance of mitochondrial dynamics and functions in tissue development, cell differentiation, and reprogramming processes. Signalling cascades are critical for tissue stem cell maintenance and cell fate determination, and growing evidence demonstrates mitochondria could act as a centre of intra and extracellular signals to coordinate signalling pathways, such as Notch, Wnt, and YAP/TAZ signalling. Just an organelle, however, emerges as a master regulator of cell differentiation, and can be a target to manipulate cell fates.
[en] The success of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in differentiation therapy for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) highly encourages researches to apply a new combination therapy based on ATRA. Therefore, research strategies to further sensitize cells to retinoids are urgently needed. In this study, we showed that Dihydromyricetin (DMY), a 2,3-dihydroflavonol compound, exhibited a strong synergy with ATRA to promote APL NB4 cell differentiation. We observed that DMY sensitized the NB4 cells to ATRA-induced cell growth inhibition, CD11b expression, NBT reduction and myeloid regulator expression. PML-RARα might not be essential for DMY-enhanced differentiation when combined with ATRA, while the enhanced differentiation was dependent on the activation of p38-STAT1 signaling pathway. Taken together, our study is the first to evaluate the synergy of DMY and ATRA in NB4 cell differentiation and to assess new opportunities for the combination of DMY and ATRA as a promising approach for future differentiation therapy.
[en] Highlights: • PEAR1 is upregulated during murine C2C12 myoblast differentiation. • Changing PEAR1 expression alters the levels of myogenic markers. • PEAR1 is involved in muscle regeneration in vivo. • PEAR1 affects skeletal muscle cell differentiation. C2C12 murine myoblasts are a common model for studying muscle differentiation. Platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1), an epidermal growth factor repeat-containing transmembrane receptor, is known to participate in platelet contact-induced activation. In the present study, we demonstrated that PEAR1 is involved in the differentiation of C2C12 murine myoblasts. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were used to determine PEAR1 expression and localization during C2C12 cell differentiation. Subsequently, PEAR1 expression was activated and inhibited using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-dCas9 technology to explore its effects on this process. PEAR1 expression was found to increase over the course of C2C12 cell differentiation. This protein was predominately localized on the membrane of these cells, where it clustered upon induction of differentiation. Expression of the myogenic markers Desmin, MYOG, and MYH2 revealed that PEAR1 positively regulated C2C12 cell differentiation. Moreover, induction of muscle injury by administration of bupivacaine to mice indicated that PEAR1 might play a role in muscle regeneration. In summary, our study confirmed the involvement of PEAR1 in C2C12 cell differentiation, contributing to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development.