Results 1 - 10 of 2057
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[en] Growth arrest specific 1 (GAS1) is a signaling mediator for the development of the central nervous system that works as a co-receptor for sonic hedgehog (SHH) to induce the amplification of neural progenitors during the patterning of the mammalian neural tube and establishing granular cells in the cerebellum. Recently, we confirmed that Gas1 is also expressed by neural progenitors of the developing cortex and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The presence of GAS1 in progenitor stages indicates that one of its principal roles is the maintenance of these cells during neurogenic events. However, the signals responsible for the expression of Gas1 in progenitor cells are unknown, an aspect that is relevant to understand its functions during neurogenesis. Here, we focused on elucidating the mechanisms of the transcriptional regulation of Gas1 and using comparative genomics methods found two highly conserved E-boxes in the Gas1 promoter which mediate its up-regulation by NeuroD1. Additionally, we found that GAS1 and NeuroD1 co-localize in the neocortex, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the external granular layer of the cerebellum, suggesting a previously unsuspected regulatory relationship. Our data indicate that Gas1 is a direct target of NeuroD1 during the induction of the neurogenic program.
[en] A contribution is evaluated of computerized tomography to the diagnosis of expanding processes localized in the pontocerebellar corner of posterior cranial fossa, particularly neurinomas of n. statoacousticus. In cases of expanding processes in this region, especially in minor expansions, CT examination must be performed in a specially selected way, always after the intravenous administration of a contrast agent. The diagnosis of small neurinomas of n. statoacousticus, localized mostly in intracanalicullar portion, in the external auditory duct proved to be particularly difficult. In these cases, computerized pneumomeatography proved to be of a particular value; CT examination of the internal auditory duct and its neighbourhood was performed after previous filling of this region with air which, in most cases, well differentiated expansions into adjacent structures. It is confirmed in agreement with reports in the literature, that in cases of serious clinical suspicion and negative or controversial finding by classical CT examination, computerized pneumomeatography is the method of choice in the diagnosis of small isodense neurinomas of nervus statoacousticus. (author). 10 refs
[en] Most cerebral sparganosis lesions are located in the white matter of the cerebral hemisphere. A few cases of cerebral sparganosis where the sparganum have migrated into the contralateral cerebral hemisphere have been reported. We report a case of cerebral sparganosis where the sparganum migrated from the white matter of the left frontal lobe to the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere after failure of surgical removal of the worm
[en] A 23-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of intracranial hypertension. CT showed a large, nonenhancing cerebellar mass with surrounding calcification and displacement of the fourth ventricle. MRI revealed a septate lesion, with low signal on T1-weighted and high signal on T2-weighted images. The cerebellar tonsils were displaced below the foramen magnum and there was associated syringomyelia. The MRI features were characteristic of Lhermitte-Duclos (LD) disease (dysplastic gangliocytoma) and the diagnosis was confirmed following surgery. In this case, we emphasise the usefulness of MRI in the diagnosis of LD disease and consider the possible pathogenesis of the associated syringomyelia. (orig.)
[en] A detailed analysis of the distortion of the subarachnoid cisterns produced by intraventricular tumours of the fourth ventricle was carried out on a clinical material of 30 patients examined with pneumography. The cisternal distortions in cases with a tumour originating from the roof of the ventricle have been compared with those in tumours originating from the floor, and the typical appearances for each group of tumours are recorded. The results should be applicable when analysing cisterns examined not only with pneumography but also with other radiologic methods, such as computer tomography and cisternography with positive contrast media. (Auth.)
[en] Transient cortical blindness is reported to occur in 0.3% to 1% of cerebral angiography procedures. It develops within minutes of contrast medium injection and lasts for up to several days. We report a long episode of transient cortical blindness in a 17-year-old boy with cerebellar haemangioblastoma, which started during the preoperative vertebral angiography and lasted for 5 days. CT performed 2 days after the sudden onset of bilateral visual loss showed multiple asymmetrical lesions within the brain parenchyma in the distribution of the posterior cerebral circulation. Even though the patient's vision was completely restored 5 days after angiography, repeat MRI performed 2 months after angiography showed improvement but with residual lesions in the thalami, cerebellum and occipital lobe. (orig.)
[en] Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measures concentrations of metabolites in vivo and provides a powerful method for identifying tumours. MRS has not entered routine clinical use partly due to the difficulty of analysing the spectra. To create a straightforward method for interpreting short-echo-time MRS of childhood cerebellar tumours. Single-voxel MRS (1.5-T Siemens Symphony NUM4, TR/TE 1,500/30 ms) was performed at presentation in 30 children with cerebellar tumours. The MRS results were analysed for comparison with histological diagnosis. Peak heights for N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho) and myo-inositol (mIns) were determined and receiver operator characteristic curves used to select ratios that best discriminated between the tumour types. The method was implemented by a group of clinicians and scientists, blinded to the results. A total of 27 MRS studies met the quality control criteria. NAA/Cr >4.0 distinguished all but one of the astrocytomas from the other tumours. A combination of Cr/Cho <0.75 and mIns/NAA <2.1 separated all the medulloblastomas from the ependymomas. Peak height ratios from short-echo-time MRS can accurately predict the histopathology of childhood cerebellar tumours. (orig.)
[en] Hypertensive encephalopathy typically presents with bilateral parietooccipital vasogenic edema. Brainstem and cerebellar edema are uncommon in association with typical supratentorial changes. We experienced three cases of atypical hypertensive encephalopathy involving brainstem and cerebellum as well as cerebral white matter, which showed characteristic alternating linear bright and low signals in the pons, the so-called 'stripe sign'. We report these cases here with a brief literature review.