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[en] Analytical chemistry in CBRNe (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear explosive) context requires not only high quality data; quickness, ruggedness and robustness are also mandatory. In this work, three samples preparation methods were compared using several organophosphorus pesticides as test compounds, used as stimulants of nerve CWA (Chemical Warfare Agents) to choose the one with best characteristics. Result was obtained better with the Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction (DLLME), relatively new in CBRNe field, obtaining uncertainty for different simulants between 8 and 15 % while a quantification limit between 0.01 and 0.08 μg/ l. To optimize this extraction method, different organo chlorinated solvents also tested but not relevant difference in these tests was obtained. In this work, all samples were analyzed by using a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and also with Gas Chromatograph coupled with Nitrogen Phosphorous Detector (NPD) for DLLME samples to evaluate a low cost and rugged instrument adapt to field analytical methods with good performance in terms of uncertainty and sensibility even if poorer respect to the mass spectrometry. (author)
[en] Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator
[en] Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator.
[en] It is a well known fact that ex-communist countries in Southeast Europe during the 70s and 80s have been working intensively on nuclear, chemical and biological weapons development programs, and some of them have even been producing chemical and biological weapons, while the other have attained it as a part of the Warsaw Pact as allies of the USSR. The latter, although they have not been developing their own WMD had their finest experts take part in WMD development in USSR institutes, laboratories and production facilities and have therefore acquired know-how. It is a slightly less known fact that those projects have included persons who were loyal to the totalitarian regime, and such loyalty was proven through membership in communist parties, and very often through cooperation with secret police and services. Being a member of a secret police or secret service in those countries at the same time meant being a person of the ultimate, conspiratorial trust and trusting and serving a member of such police and service was a patriotic imperative. It is an even less know fact that the security and intelligence service in those countries at the time recruited their informers, yes-men and operatives among criminals who were often accused of most serious crimes, as well as among officers and scientists who took part in top secret projects, such as WMD development projects. Being a part of such project meant being a person of the utmost trust and significance and loyalty to the system had to be proven at any given moment. It is the least known fact that the criminals and petty offenders, as well as patriots - system defenders, who were recruited in such a way, have very often participated in assassinations of dissidents and political emigrants from the above mentioned countries. Many of these assassinations were described in the western press, where they took place, and sometimes suspicious means and methods were used resembling CRB agents, and many of those remained suspicious, weird and secret due to violent deaths from massive brain hemorrhage, heart failure or lung embolism, all symptoms of ricin poisoning. Only after the wars on the territory of former Yugoslavia, it became known that chemical and biological agents were used in the form of CB terrorism, which was organized and performed jointly by those involved in organized crime and then secret services, with the help of persons involved in nuclear-chemical-biological weapons development programs. In the last couple of years while processing mafia conflicts in ex-communist countries in Southeastern Europe fascinating information has been revealed that the people accused and often convicted because of organized crime in the past have also been members of secret police, intelligence services, special forces etc. and in closing the deals and their execution the criminals do not care about nationality and nation-state borders. The authors will try to come up with answers, on the basis of expert-scientific and well-argumented premises, whether organized crime on the territory of Southeastern Europe could get hold of WMD deriving from development programs from ex-communist countries and whether these weapons will be used in their mutual conflicts and conflicts with those in power in their own or neighboring countries.(author)
[en] The frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB) and nuclear buds on filament (NBf) were examined in 660 specimens of herring (Clupea harengus) collected in 2009–2014 at 65 study stations located mainly along the chemical munition transport routes in the Baltic Sea. The frequency of nuclear abnormalities was strongly increased in herring caught at four stations located close to chemical munition dumping sites, or CWAs — substances (chemical warfare agents) in sediments. Significant increase of MN, NB and NBf was observed in fish caught November 2010–2013 compared to 2009. The most significantly increased genotoxicity responses were recorded in fish caught at stations along CW (chemical weapons) transport routes, close to the Bornholm CW dumping area, in zones with CWAs in sediments and with oil–gas platforms. - Highlights: • Micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB) and NB on filament (NBf) were studied. • MN, NB and NBf were analysed in herring from 65 stations located in the Baltic Sea. • Highest genotoxicity was recorded in fish caught at chemical munitions dumping areas. • High genotoxicity was shown by MN, NB or NBf at least in 50% of stations.
[en] In view of the threat to Canadian domestic targets presented by the asymmetric use of chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) weapons of mass destruction (WMD), this thesis examines whether the Canadian Forces (CF) has capability deficiencies in managing the consequences of such an attack. Research included an examination of the post Cold War strategic environment, the state of the art in CBRN technology, current concepts and experience in managing the consequences of major disasters and responsibilities at the municipal, provincial and federal levels of government. The methodology used included scenario based planning to develop circumstances where WMD might be used domestically, and decomposition to break down the scenarios into events and potential CF roles and tasks. The current CF structure was used to determine the probable CF response, which included the ability of CF units to perform the required tasks, the CF response time and the ability of the CF to sustain the operation. (author)
[en] This book illustrates the cooperation of the civil and the military experts in the domain of the NBRC (nuclear, biological, radiological and chemical threat). The different aspects bond to the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, are discussed. Al topics of each domains (NRBC) are presented: historical and fundamental aspects, diagnostic, therapeutic and prevention. (A.L.B.)
[en] Hazardous materials paradigms call for definitive treatment of chemical victims to begin in the 'warm zone' during decontamination. This delay may result in lethal outcomes, particularly in the case of multiple victims, where rescue may be delayed due to insufficient numbers of rescue teams. It is virtually impossible for rescuers in full protective gear to establish intravenous lines. In recent years, significant advances have been made in intraosseous (IO) infusion devices. An IO device developed in our institution, the EZ-IO, is very easily placed by rescuers in typical work uniforms. IO placement takes longer while in protective gear, but is feasible. The IO is equivalent to an intravenous line, allowing more rapid administration of antidotes in the event of chemical mass casualties. Antidotes not amenable to intramuscular administration and even those often given IM may be more effective given IO. IO administration has the following possible advantages over intravenous or intramuscular antidote administration: 1. Drugs administered IO reach the vascular system virtually instantaneously. 2. IO administration may be performed in protective clothing and could theoretically be employed while awaiting rescue. 3. IO administration may be preferred over intravenous administration in the warm zone. In summary, IO administration of antidotes should be further evaluated for use in chemical disasters. The ease and speed of placement, ready access to the vascular tree, and potential for earlier intervention make it a potentially ideal means of vascular access and antidotal administration in the mass casualty situation. (author)
[en] The mobile light detection and ranging DIAL system of Malek Ashtar University of Technology has been developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents whose absorption wavelengths are in the range of 9.2–10.8 μm tunable CO_2 lasers of the system. In this paper, this system is first described and then ammonia detection is analyzed experimentally. Also, experimental results of detecting a sarin agent simulant, dimethyl–methyl phosphonate (DMMP), are presented. The power levels received from different ranges to detect specific concentrations of NH_3 and DMMP have been measured and debated. The primary test results with a 150 ns clipped pulse width by passive pinhole plasma shutter indicate that the system is capable of monitoring several species of pollutants in the range of about 1 km, with a 20 m spatial and 2 min temporal resolution. (paper)
[en] Technical and technological accidents in petrochemical industry, with possible catastrophic consequences, caused by anthropogenic activity (technical or technological malfunction, terror, or war destruction ), usually accompanied by great human losses and material damage and high intensity of events in a relatively short period of time, which requires a quick action of emergency responders, process personnel and the high degree of self-organized endangered population for treatment in these kind of accidents. This implies a high qualification and skills for the treatment of accidents of all factors of rescue and protection such as: process personnel, emergency responders (fire-fighters, technical services), other workers as well as the endangered population. Managing the system of protection and rescue in communities with such risks requires maximum responsibility of local authorities and management of petrochemical plants. Petrokemija Kutina, with its many years of experience as a target for military and terrorist attacks, actively participated in the creation of laws and systems of protection and rescue in the Republic of Croatia, and also in creating standard operating procedures on local and regional level, and is also ready to share its own experiences with other similar factories using toxic substances in the production processes.(author)