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[en] The hourly rainfall at 21 ground stations in Taiwan is used to investigate changes in the frequency, intensity, and duration of rainfall, which can be divided into typhoon and non-typhoon rainfall, in the period of 1970–2010. As a whole, the frequency of rainfall shows a decreasing trend for lighter rain and an increasing trend for heavier rain. Also, the typhoon rainfall shows a significant increase for all intensities, while the non-typhoon rainfall exhibits a general trend of decreasing, particularly for lighter rain. In rainfall intensity, both typhoon and non-typhoon rainfall extremes become more intense, with an increased rate much greater than the Clausius–Clapeyron thermal scaling. Moreover, rainfall extremes associated with typhoons have tended to affect Taiwan rainfall for longer in recent decades. The more frequent, intense and long-lasting typhoon rainfall is mainly induced by the slower translation speed of the typhoons over the neighborhood of Taiwan, which could be associated with a weakening of steering flow in the western North Pacific and the northern South China Sea. (letter)
[en] Carbonates of Central Luconia, Malaysia, had been serving as hydrocarbon reservoirs for more than 25 years. However, the relationship and impacts of extensive tectonic events to the growth of Miocene carbonates in Central Luconia have not been revealed sufficiently. In this work, two carbonates platforms in the southern part of Central Luconia were used for detailed interpretation and seismic based structural restoration. This work had provided new insight for the interpretation of carbonate growth in Central Luconia and its association with the surrounding tectonic. This work suggested three possible tectonic evolutions from Late Oligocene to Pliocene are responsible for the growth of carbonates in Central Luconia. These stages are equivalent with pre-carbonate stage (Late Oligocene–Early Miocene), syn-carbonate stage (Middle–Late Miocene) and post-carbonate stage (Pliocene). Rifting of the South China Sea and subduction of proto-South China Sea are believed to be responsible for the development of faulting during pre-carbonate stage, while movement of the ancient Baram Line is thought to control the parallel striking direction of normal faults during syncarbonate stage. Finally, subsidence and compaction due to the overburden clastic materials from the prograding deltas is considered as the main reason for the impacts of gravitational tectonics in this area, which corresponding to the post-carbonate stage.
[en] We analyzed two recently acquired multi-channel seismic profiles across the Dangerous Grounds and the Reed Bank area in the South China Sea. Reconstruction of the tectonic subsidence shows that the southern continental margin can be divided into three stages with variable subsidence rate. A delay of tectonic subsidence existed in both areas after a break-up, which was likely related to the major mantle convection during seafloor spreading, that was triggered by the secondary mantle convection below the continental margin, in addition to the variation in lithospheric thickness. Meanwhile, the stage with delayed subsidence rate differed along strikes. In the Reed Bank area, this stage is between 32–23.8 Ma, while in the Dangerous Grounds, it was much later (between 19–15.5 Ma). We believe the propagated rifting in the South China Sea dominated the changes of this delayed subsidence rate stage.
[en] The results of the first marine gas hydrate drilling expedition of Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey (GMGS-1) in northern continental slope of the South China Sea revealed a variable distribution of gas hydrates in the Shenhu area. In this study, comparisons between the eight sites with gas-hydrate petroleum system were used to analyze and re-examine hydrate potential. In the Shenhu gas hydrate drilling area, all the sites were located in a suitable low-temperature, high-pressure environment. Biogenic and thermogenic gases contributed to the formation of hydrates. Gas chimneys and some small-scale faults (or micro-scale fractures) compose the migration pathways for gas-bearing fluids. Between these sites, there are three key differences: the seafloor temperatures and pressures; geothermal gradient and sedimentary conditions. Variations of seafloor temperatures and pressures related to water depths and geothermal gradient would lead to changes in the thickness of gas hydrate stability zones. Although the lithology and grain size of the sediments were similar, two distinct sedimentary units were identified for the first time through seismic interpretation, analysis of deep-water sedimentary processes, and the Cm pattern (plotted one-percentile and median values from grain-size analyses), implying the heterogeneous sedimentary conditions above Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs). Based on the analyses of forming mechanisms and sedimentary processes, these two fine-grained sedimentary units have different physical properties. Fine-grained turbidites (Unit I) with thin-bedded chaotic reflectors at the bottom acted as the host rocks for hydrates; whereas, finegrained sediments related to soft-sediment deformation (Unit II) characterized by thick continuous reflectors at the top would serve as regional homogeneous caprocks. Low-flux methane that migrated upwards along chimneys could be enriched preferentially in fine-grained turbidites, resulting in the formation of hydrates within Unit I. However, overlying fine-grained sediments related to soft-sediment deformation would hinder the further migration of gases/fluids, causing the extremely low methane concentration in Unit I. Three of the eight sites with hydrates from recovered core samples were located within sedimentary Unit I, and the other five sites were not. Because, the most significant difference between the eight sites is the nature and type of sedimentary deposits above the BSRs, it is suggested therefore that sedimentary conditions are the crucial factor controlling. (Author)
[en] Natural gas resources in China are abundant. The undiscovered recoverable natural gas resources in China are estimated to be 19.27×1012 m3. Natural gas is mainly distributed in the middle and west China and offshore areas of China. The Tarim Basin, Sichuan Basin, Ordos Basin, East China Sea Basin, Tsaidam Basin, Yinggehai Basin, and Qiongdongnan Basin are the main gas-bearing basins. The natural gas resources are not distributed evenly and are under-explored in China. The deeper horizons in east China, foreland basins and craton paleo-uplifts in the middle and west China, and the offshore basins are the main exploration areas in the future.
[en] Large intraseasonal rainfall variations are identified over the southern South China Sea (SSCS), tropical southeastern Indian Ocean (SEIO), and east coast of the Philippines (EPHI) in boreal winter. The present study contrasts origins and propagations and investigates interrelations of intraseasonal rainfall variations on the 10–20- and 30–60-day time scales in these regions. Different origins are identified for intraseasonal rainfall anomalies over the SSCS, SEIO, and EPHI on both time scales. On the 10–20-day time scale, strong northerly or northeasterly wind anomalies related to the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) play a major role in intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS and EPHI. On the 30–60-day time scale, both the intraseasonal signal from the tropical Indian Ocean and the EAWM-related wind anomalies contribute to intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS, whereas the EAWM-related wind anomalies have a major contribution to the intraseasonal rainfall variations over the EPHI. No relation is detected between the intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SEIO and the EAWM on both the 10–20-day and 30–60-day time scales. The anomalies associated with intraseasonal rainfall variations over the SSCS and EPHI propagate northwestward and northeastward, respectively, on the 10–20- and 30–60-day time scales. The intraseasonal rainfall anomalies display northwestward and northward propagation over the Bay of Bengal, respectively, on the 10–20- and 30–60-day time scales.
[en] The activities of 224Ra in the East China Sea (ECS) were measured by the Mn-fiber adsorption-emanation method. The horizontal and vertical distributions of 224Ra in the ECS in summer and winter were studied. The ranges of 224Ra activities were < lowest limit of detection (LLD)-5.88 Bq/m3 in summer with an average of 0.85 Bq/m3, and < LLD-7.50 Bq/m3 in winter with an average of 0.72 Bq/m3. And the distributions of 224Ra in the surface water were similar in these two seasons, decreasing rapidly with the increasing distance from the coast. The high 224Ra area was located within 30-100 km offshore and the lowest activities appeared in the Kuroshio Current. The vertical distributions of 224Ra showed two different characteristics. The horizontal and vertical eddy diffusion coefficients calculated by the one-dimensional state model of 224Ra were (7.1-88.9) x 106 cm2/s and 2.18-163 cm2/s, respectively. The upwelling rates off Zhejiang Province were calculated from 224Ra vertical distribution, which varied from 8.4 x 10-3cm/s to 13.3 x 10-3cm/s in summer and 16.3 x 10-3cm/s to 16.8 x 10-3cm/s in winter. (author)
[en] Results obtained from the analysis of sediments surface samples taken from rivers mouth and polluted marine environment were analyzed for REE contents to determine the concentrations of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Lu and Yb using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Thirty surface samples were collected from ten sites in the coastal marine sediments of the South China Sea along 957 km stretch of the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The samples prepared in the powdered form before irradiating them in a neutron flux of ∼4 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 at 750 kW power using the TRIGA Mark II research reactor at Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology (MINT). Results of the total concentration are used to establish baseline data in environmental pollution assessment and to develop the correlations between the Ce/Ce* anomalies and the distribution patterns of some the light rare earth elements (LREEs) and the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs). The Chondrite-normalized REE pattern from each site examined and used to explain the sedimentation patterns by anthropogenic activities and by natural processes such as shoreline erosion, weathering deposits. Shale-normalized (NASC) patterns suggest enrichment of LREEs relative to the HREEs with a positive Ce/Ce* anomaly. Validation of the used method was done using a Soil-7 SRM. (author)
[en] Inventories and fluxes of 210Pb, 228Ra and 226Ra were determined in sediment cores collected at nine stations covering of the southern South China Sea and Malacca Straits with the thickness of water column between 42 and 83 m depth. The inventories of 210Pb, 228Ra and 226Ra were calculated range from 0.15-2.55 Bq cm-2, 0.05-0.40 Bq cm-2 and 6.83-83.63 Bq cm-2, meanwhile the fluxes ranged from 0.005-0.079 Bq cm-2 yr-1, 0.009-0.048 Bq cm-2 yr-1 and 0.003-0.037 Bq cm-2 yr-1, respectively. The results show that the highest inventories and fluxes for 210Pb, 228Ra and 226Ra were found at station WC 01 and EC 05. Because there are additional sources of 210Pb, 228Ra and 226Ra, where water transport will brings more dissolved isotopes, influence of the transportation and deposition of suspended particles, fast rate of regeneration and greater production of those radionuclides and others. (author)
[en] The Pearl River Mouth Basin, which is situated on the northern margin of the South China Sea, has attracted great attention not only because of its tectonic setting but also because of its abundant hydrocarbon resources. We have analyzed the Cenozoic tectonic subsidence history of 4 drilled wells and 43 artificial wells from the Zhu 1 Sub-basin of the Pearl River Mouth Basin by back-stripping, using newly interpreted seismic profiles. We also calculated the average tectonic subsidence rates of the four sags in the Zhu 1 Sub-basin. The rifting and post-rifting stages are separated by abrupt changes in the tectonic subsidence curves and average subsidence rates. In the eastern sags of the Zhu 1 Sub-basin, tectonic subsidence started to slow at ca. 30 Ma, compared with ca. 23.8 Ma in the western sags. This probably corresponds to the timing of break-up and suggests that rifting in the Pearl River Mouth Basin ended earlier in the eastern sags than in the western sags. Anomalously accelerated tectonic subsidence occurred at 17.5–16.4 Ma during the post-rifting stage, with average subsidence rates as high as 301.9 m/Myr. This distinguishes the Pearl River Mouth Basin from classical Atlantic passive continental marginal basins, which demonstrate exponentially decaying post-rift tectonic subsidence.