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[en] A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.
[en] (β-Hydroxyethyl)tri([11C]methyl)ammonium ([11C]choline) is a tracer very effective in imaging various human tumors using positron emission tomography (PET). We have constructed a computer-controlled [11C]choline synthetic apparatus which carries out the whole process of synthesis and product purification automatically. The setup is simple and the process quick. In 20 min, 11 GBq of [11C]choline (chloride) is obtainable from 26 GBq of [11C]CO2. The final product is a sterile and pyrogen-free [11C]choline 'injection'
[en] Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an imaging approach that allows for the noninvasive molecular characterization of a region of interest. By detecting signals of water, lipids, and other metabolites, MRS can provide metabolic information for lesion characterization and assessment of treatment response. Although MRS has been routinely used in the brain, clinical applications within the musculoskeletal system have only more recently emerged. The aim of this article is to review the technical considerations for performing MRS in the musculoskeletal system, focusing on proton MRS, and to discuss its potential roles in musculoskeletal tumor imaging and the assessment of muscle physiology and disease
[en] 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is the most widely used agent for imaging tumors with positron emission tomography (PET). However, diagnosis of malignant tumors with FDG PET can create a relatively high false positive ratios, which is based on the difficultly differentiating tumor from inflammation. Imaging choline metabolism with PET can overcome some limitations of FDG PET and has clinical potential in tumors such as prostate cancer, brain tumors and bladder cancer with a significant advantage over FDG PET. The basic principle for imaging choline metabolism with PET, PET tracers for imaging choline metabolism and their applications are summarized. (authors)
[en] Purpose: Phenylketonuria (PKU) patients were examined by different MR techniques to explain the pathological changes observed in periventricular white brain matter using conventional MR imaging. Material and Methods: Fifteen patients with treated classical PKU were examined by 1H spectroscopy, relaxometry and diffusion imaging on a whole-body 1.5-T MR imager. Results: Known PKU lesions characterized by T2 enhancement in periventricular white matter were observed in all patients. The MR spectra from the lesioned areas showed a significant decrease in choline concentration. The mean ADC of water decreased and tortuosity increased in PKU lesions compared to control data. Conclusion: The results support the following hypothesis: The T2 increase in the PKU lesion reflects a raised concentration of free water molecules (about 15%) that have an increased trajectory between collisions compared to the same region in controls. The increase in water mobility might be explained by changes in extracellular space volume and myelin sheaths, which, presumably, have a different geometry with more hydrophobic sites in PKU patients. The changes result in increased tortuosity and may be confirmed by the loss of anisotropy in PKU lesions
[en] Metachromatic leukodystrophy is characterized by dysmyelination caused by a deficiency of arylsulfatase-A. In a 17-month-old boy with metachromatic leukodystrophy, an echo-planar diffusion MR sequence revealed a restricted diffusion pattern in the deep white matter, manifested by high-signal on b 1000 s/mm2 images, and low ADC values (0.56 x 103 mm2/s). Proton MR spectroscopy revealed a marked decrease in choline, a metabolite related to myelin turnover. These observations consisting of a restricted diffusion pattern on diffusion MR imaging, and decreased choline peaks on proton spectroscopy, likely represented dysmyelination in metachromatic leukodystrophy
[en] We herein describe a simple setup for the automated simultaneous synthesis of L-[methyl-11C]methionine and N-[methyl-11C]choline by solid-supported methylation . The setup is extremely simple and easy to adapt to other automated systems and due to its versatility, the method can be utilized for the production of other radiopharmaceuticals requiring a simple [11C]methylation step. Furthermore, it can be used for multiple simultaneous synthesis