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[en] Citrus aurantium flowers are high value aromatic and medicinal plants. The storage conditions and quality of dried Citrus aurantium flowers depends on their hygroscopic stability. The equilibrium moisture content was determined at temperatures (from 30 to 60 °C), and the sorption phenomenon is well described by Peleg model. The optimal water activity for the storage of the product was estimated at awop=0.373. Afterwards, the net isosteric heat was evaluated in the range of 88 kJ.mol−1 for small values of the moisture content (Xeq=0.14kg water/kg d.b), and it decreased along with the increase of Xeq. The experimental drying curves showed only a falling rate period. Finally, Midilli-Kucuk model was found to be the more suitable to describe the drying kinetic of Citrus aurantium flowers. (Author)
[en] The main purpose of this study was to analyze the perceived outcomes of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) technologies adoption in order to sustain citrus farms in Mazandaran province, Iran. Study population consisted of all citrus growers in the villages of 12 counties of Mazandaran province, which a sample of 290 orchardmen were selected through a proportional random sampling technique. A questionnaire was designed to collect data which was both valid and reliable according to expert opinion and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient respectively. The results of the factor analysis showed that “market access and safe product exports,” “consumer’ health and environment-friendly behavior,” “safe production and public demand,” and “information sharing and strengthening local associations” were the four perceived outcomes of GAPs technologies adoption in citrus farms of Iran. These factors explained 65.02% of the total variance. These four perceived outputs of GAPs support economic, environmental, and social sustainability dimensions respectively.
[en] The study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional significance of four varieties of citrus fruits peel such as sour orange, sweet orange, lemon and grapefruit. The peels were dehydrated, grinded by using hammer mill machine and analyzed comparatively. The selected parameters were total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, nonreducing, lignin and pectin ranged from 1.7-7.3 %,1.2-2.1 %, 5.7-8.6 %, 2.2-4.2 %,10.2-16.5 %, 12.4-10.2 %, 2.5-4.2 %, 1.3-6.4 % and 4.4-12.8 %, respectively. The quantity of p-carotene and vitamin C determined by spectrophotometer were in the range of 0.13-2.10 l1g/g and 42.5-65.0 mg/100g respectively. The overall result showed considerable variation among the peels of citrus fruits for different quality parameters. The varieties were characterized on the basis of nutrient contents. Due to lack of information available on some macronutrients composition of these citrus fruits waste (Peels) and their role in contemporary diet, the assessment was carried out on the basis of nutritional quality. (author)
[en] In the 1950s and 1960s, the fruits of Batangas mandarin (sintones) were conspicous in the market stalls of Greater Manila and the rest of Luzon. They vied with imported apples and oranges for the buyers' attention. The farmers were ecstatic and venturesome; hence, they invested heavily on their patch by spraying regularly against pests and diseases plus they adopted the latest in farm management. However, in the late 1980s to date, the yield declined precipitously despite the fertilizers and good farm management. The trees started to produce small, misshappen leaves which were mottled - a sign of what is called greening disease. This invasive disease apparently renders a coup d' grace to plants growing on an already abused soil. Not knowing what to do about the debacle, the farmers abandoned the growing of citrus. The heavy application with mineral fertilizers practiced by the Lipa farmers could have left (and have accumulated) certain unused radicals because the citrus needs less of them. For instance, most of the sulfate would be left in soil and would have to be rendered innocuous. The other fertilizers have similarly unused radicals, which would present problems of detoxification. In the present study, we hypothesized that judicious application of fertilizers and orchard-wide addition of organic matter may help Lipa soil to recover its yield potential. Our observations indicated that the greatest growth performance of citrus was when all the four component treatments (i.e. complete fertilizer, chicken manure and macro and micro-nutrient solutions) were applied as compared with the treatment where one or more of these components were absent. (author)
[en] Successful in vitro plant regeneration was achieved from shoot tip of asetically grown seedings of Citrus limon. Different combinations of cytokinin and auxins were employed for shoot morphogenesis. Highest percent (90) of shoot regeneration was found on MS medium containing BA 1.0 (mg/l) + NAA 0.1 (mg/l). The MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2ip and 0.1mg/l NAA was found best shoot multiplication. Highest shoot length (3.9 cm) was found on 2 mg/1 GA3 + 0.1 mg/l NAA. All the treatments of shoot multiplication medium produced slight to moderate callus at the base of the explant. Halt strength of MS medium supplemented with 1.0mg/l of NAA appeared to be the most suitable for rooting of excised shoots. The complete plants were successfully transferred to soil.(authors)
[en] The effectiveness of 6 different traps for monitoring the tephritid Anastrepha ludens, a major citrus pest in northern Mexico and southern USA, was evaluated in studies in a grapefruit orchard in Mexico in 1982. The response of previously marked sterile flies to traps having different shape and colour combinations, with and without bait, were evaluated daily during one week in 3 replications. The trap with the highest capture was the McPhail trap, a transparent glass trap with bait. Yellow circular or rectangular traps with bait exhibited the 2nd highest capture. A rectangular transparent trap with bait showed the 3rd highest capture value. Circular and rectangular traps painted in yellow without bait demonstrated the lowest capture values. All traps showed diminished effectiveness through the season
[en] The orange species Citrus cavaleriei is endemic to China and its unifoliate compound leaves are characterized by the well-developed wing leaf. Nine populations from Yunnan Province were studied, based on ten leaf characters, including the total length of leaf (TLL), the length of wing leaf (LWL), the width of wing leaf (WWL), the length of leaflet (LL), the width of leaflet (WL), LWL/WWL, LL/WL, LWL/TLL, LWL/LL, and WWL/WL. The results show that the maximums of most leaf characters are in the Weixin Population while the minimums are in the Yangbi Population; the variation of most leaf characters in Yangbi Population is highest and that in Suijiang Population and Eshan-1 Population is lowest; the variations of WWL in all populations were higher, while that of LWL/TLL is lower; the variance of every character among populations is very significant; the correlation between the most leaf characters is very positively or negatively significant. Meanwhile the longitude has a very significant correlation with all leaf characters; the latitude with LL, WL, TLL, and LL/WL has a very significant positive correlation, that with WWL has a significant positive correlation, and that with LWL/TLL, LWL/LL, WWL/WL, and LWL/WWL has a very significant negative correlation; the correlation between the altitude and LWL/TLL, LWL/LL, WWL/WL, and LWL/WWL are positively significant and that between the altitude and LL, WL, TLL, WWL, LWL, and LL/WL were extremely negatively significant. The clustering of ten leaf characters from nine populations is in accordance with the geographical distribution, especially the longitude. (author)
[en] Manipulating insect behavior through the deployment of semiochemicals offers a promising opportunity for protecting crops in a sustainable manner. Therefore, there is still a significant opportunity for the development of natural crop protectants as eco-friendly tools in pest management. In this context, the aim of the current investigation is to find a novel prophylactic against the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) and to gain a better understanding of the host-finding and selection ability of the ACP towards Murraya paniculata seedlings treated with Sophora alopecuroides alkaloids extract (SAAE). Our results indicate that foliar application of SAAE influences the psyllid host-finding and selection process. The behavioral assay with M. paniculata seedlings treated with 15 and 30 mg/mL of SAAE, with masked visual cues, revealed that only 6.6 and 10.4% psyllids were able to locate the host in the vials. The results also indicate that citrus psyllids mainly rely on both visual and olfaction in host-finding and selection. In choice settling experiments, psyllids settled almost completely on control seedlings rather than on seedlings treated with SAAE at a concentration of 30 mg/mL. Chemical analyses of the alkaloids extract revealed the presence of sophocarpine (33.90%), sophoridine (6.23%), anagyrine (2.77%), matrine (2.38%), lupanine (1.68%) aphylline (0.89%), and sophoramine (0.75%). In further behavioral bioassays with the dominant alkaloids sophocarpine and sophoridine, the alkaloids repelled ACP at higher concentrations of 50 and 70 mg/mL as compared to SAAE. Furthermore, the 50 mg/mL (1:1, v/v) combination of sophocarpine and sophoridine displayed a synergistic effect and showed the maximum behavioral effect as compared to the individual alkaloid. Based on our results, SAAE makes M. paniculata seedlings unattractive to the psyllids, and therefore, alkaloids could be used in reducing the colonization of citrus plants, subsequently curtailing HLB infection.