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[en] Paper deals with climate change in Estonia by main trends in mean air temperature. Three characteristics are given. In table 1 the ice-break (mean in northen Estonia) dates and standard deviation are presented for 33-34 year periods. The two last columns show the earliest and the latest date of ice-break in given period. In the table 2 the average air temperature of April-July in Tallinn is given in the same system. The time-series is reconstructed on observed air temperature combined with calculated from rye harvest dates air temperature. Table 3 presents mean winter (December-March) air temperature in Tallinn. In this case the average of periods before instrumental observations is estimated from break-off dates in Tallinn Port. The main conclusion is that general warming in this century is accelerating (author). 3 tabs
[en] The observations of Tartu-Toravere actinometrical station, performed during the last forty years, show that the transparancy of the earth atmosphere has dec reased by 3.7%, the annual incoming direct solar radiation, by 14.4% and the tot al solar radiation, by 6.3%. The mean annual amount of lower clouds has increase d by 0.5 tenths, but during summer months, by more than one tenth. In spring the melting of the permanent snow cover starts 25 days earlier and the mean surface albedo of the spring months has decreased by 28%. During the last 35 years the annual amount of precipitation has increased from 526 mm to 652 mm, but during t he spring months temperature has increased by 0.650C, but in the spring time, b y 2.50C. As a result, spring comes earlier, it is drier and agrometeorological conditions for crop growth in spring have become worse. It seems to be clear tha t the climate of Estonia is really changing probably as a result of air pollutio n. (author)
[en] This is an accomplishment final report that details the work that the co-PI Marat Khairoutdinov has done in support of the project goals and objectives. It described his work on optimizing the performance of UP-CAM model, tuning its parameters to improve results, and his work on a new approach to superparameterization using dynamically adjusting grid spacing that can potentially improve the global simulations of clouds.