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[en] We explore the possibility that the star α Orionis (Betelgeuse) is the outcome of a merger that occurred in a low-mass-ratio ( 0.07–0.25) binary system some time in the past hundreds of thousands of years. To that goal, we present a simple analytical model to approximate the perturbed internal structure of a post-merger object following the coalescence of a secondary in the mass range 1–4 M ⊙ into the envelope of a 15–17 M ⊙ primary. We then compute the long-term evolution of post-merger objects for a grid of initial conditions and make predictions about their surface properties for evolutionary stages that are consistent with the observed location of Betelgeuse in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. We find that if a merger occurred after the end of the primary’s main-sequence phase, while it was expanding toward becoming a red supergiant star and typically with radius ∼200–300 R ⊙, then its envelope is spun up to values that remain in a range consistent with Betelgeuse observations for thousands of years of evolution. We argue that the best scenario that can explain both the fast rotation of Betelgeuse and its observed large space velocity is one where a binary was dynamically ejected by its parent cluster a few million years ago and then subsequently merged. An alternative scenario in which the progenitor of Betelgeuse was spun up by accretion in a binary and released by the supernova explosion of the companion requires a finely tuned set of conditions but cannot be ruled out.
[en] We find that a simple extension of the coalescence model is sufficient to incorporate the perfect quark number scaling behavior of the elliptic flow in transverse kinetic energy, recently discovered by the PHENIX Collaboration. The flavor dependence of the elliptic flow can be consistently described in the low and intermediate pT if the transverse kinetic energy is conserved in the 2 → 1 or 3 → 1 parton coalescence process at the hadronization. Thus suggesting the quark coalescence as a possible hadronization mechanism at low pT as well.
[en] The interaction of two perpendicular bubbles of a similar size (upper bubble and lower bubble) and the thin elastic membrane beneath them is studied experimentally. The dynamical behavior of the lower bubble (Bubble1), which is placed between the membrane and upper bubble (Bubble2), is rather complex. Observed phenomena such as the splitting of Bubble1 into the ‘mushroom shape’ and ‘masher shape’, the bubble-collapse induced jetting toward Bubble2 and even the coalescence effect are found and systematically categorized by the stated dimensionless parameters. (paper)
[en] A large body of experimental observations has evolved with particular reference to deuterated palladium, a mechanism of fusion unique to condensed matter. The mechanism brings to focus the relevance of the electronic structure of the host lattice, indicating the features that are desired. Direct interaction of electronegative elements such as oxygen (as happens in electrolysis experiments) creates, through modification of the electronics structure, situations under which heavy electrons are manifested. In cases where an oxide interface is present, an analogous situation is created at the onset of an insulator-metal transition caused by the induced migration of deuterons through the layer. Screened by the heavy fermions, deuterons in such situations undergo transition to a more stable quasi-molecular state, (D+D+)2e-, with substantially reduced nuclear separation. Through quantum mechanical tunneling, fusion takes place in such a cluster with a yield of 10-1.5s-1, a value consistent with observed excess heat production and near-surface occurrence of the phenomenon. 45 refs., 1 fig
[en] In situ tensile tests were carried out during X-ray microtomography imaging of a smooth and a notched specimen of dual phase steel. The void coalescence was first qualitatively observed and quantitative data concerning this damage step was then acquired. The void coalescence criteria of Brown and Embury and of Thomason were then tested against the experimental data at both the macroscopic and local levels. Although macroscopic implementation of the criteria gave acceptable results, the local approach was probably closest to the real nature of void coalescence, because it takes into account local coalescence events observed experimentally before final fracture. The correlation between actual coalescing couples of cavities and local implementation of the two criteria showed that the Thomason criterion is probably the best adapted to predict the local coalescence events in the case of the material studied
[en] The atomic-scale details during melting of a surface-free Lennard-Jones crystal were monitored using molecular dynamics simulations. Melting occurs when the superheated crystal spontaneously generates a sufficiently large number of spatially correlated destabilized particles that simultaneously satisfy the Lindemann and Born instability criteria. The accumulation and coalescence of these internal local lattice instabilities constitute the primary mechanism for homogeneous melt nucleation inside the crystal, in lieu of surface nucleation for equilibrium melting. The vibrational and elastic lattice instability criteria as well as the homogeneous nucleation theory all coincide in determining the superheating limit
[en] This work presents a mechanism of deformation-twin-induced grain boundary failure, and demonstrates the mechanism using molecular dynamics simulations. Deformation twinning is observed as the dominant mechanism during tensile deformation of columnar nanocrystalline body-centered cubic Mo. As a twin approaches a grain boundary, local stress concentration develops due to the incompatible plastic deformations in the two neighboring grains. The magnitude of the stress concentration increases as the twin widens, leading to grain boundary cracking by nucleation and coalescence of microcracks/voids.
[en] To determine the importance of merging galaxies to galaxy evolution, it is necessary to design classification tools that can identify the different types and stages of merging galaxies. Previously, using
GADGET-3/SUNRISEsimulations of merging galaxies and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), we created an accurate merging galaxy classifier based on imaging predictors. Here, we develop a complementary tool, based on stellar kinematic predictors, derived from the same simulation suite. We design mock stellar velocity and velocity dispersion maps to mimic the specifications of the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point (MaNGA) integral field spectroscopy (IFS) survey, and utilize an LDA to create a classification, based on a linear combination of 11 kinematic predictors. The classification varies significantly with mass ratio; the major (minor) merger classifications have a mean statistical accuracy of 80% (70%), a precision of 90% (85%), and a recall of 75% (60%). The major mergers are best identified by predictors that trace global kinematic features, while the minor mergers rely on local features that trace a secondary stellar component. While the kinematic classification is less accurate than the imaging classification, the kinematic predictors are better at identifying post-coalescence mergers. A combined imaging + kinematic classification has the potential to reveal more complete merger samples from imaging and IFS surveys such as MaNGA. We note that since the suite of simulations used to train the classifier covers a limited range of galaxy properties (i.e., the galaxies are of intermediate mass, and disk-dominated), the results may not be applicable to all MaNGA galaxies.
[en] We study three basic diffusion-controlled reaction processes—annihilation, coalescence, and aggregation. We examine the evolution starting with the most natural inhomogeneous initial configuration where a half-line is uniformly filled by particles, while the complementary half-line is empty. We show that the total number of particles that infiltrate the initially empty half-line is finite and has a stationary distribution. We determine the evolution of the average density from which we derive the average total number N of particles in the initially empty half-line; e.g. for annihilation . For the coalescence process, we devise a procedure that in principle allows one to compute P(N), the probability to find exactly N particles in the initially empty half-line; we complete the calculations in the first non-trivial case (N = 1). As a by-product we derive the distance distribution between the two leading particles. (paper)
[en] We study the statistical properties of 320 bulges of disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using robust structural parameters of galaxies derived from image fitting. We apply the Kormendy relation to classify classical and pseudo bulges and characterize the bulge dichotomy with respect to the structural properties of the bulges and the physical properties of the host galaxies. We confirm previous findings that pseudo bulges on average have smaller Sérsic indices, lower bulge-to-total ratios, and fainter surface brightnesses than classical bulges. Our sizable sample statistically shows that pseudo bulges are more intrinsically flattened than classical bulges. Pseudo bulges are most frequent (incidence ≳80%) in late-type spirals (later than Sc). Our measurements support the picture in which pseudo bulges arose from star formation induced by inflowing gas, while classical bulges were born out of violent processes such as mergers and coalescence of clumps. We reveal differences with the literature that warrant attention: (1) the bimodal distribution of Sérsic indices presented by previous studies is not reproduced in our study; (2) classical and pseudo bulges have similar relative bulge sizes; and (3) the pseudo bulge fraction is considerably smaller in early-type disks than reported in previous studies based on one-dimensional surface brightness profile fitting. We attribute these differences to our improved image quality, more robust bulge-to-disk decomposition technique, and to the different classification criteria that we applied. Moreover, we find that barred galaxies do not host more pseudo bulges or more prominent pseudo bulges than unbarred galaxies. Various implications of these findings are discussed.