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[en] The combined cycle power plants characteristics are better than one course open to a closed loop presenting an electrical efficiency close to 60% do not reach for gas turbine engines for power plants and conventional steam engines.
[it]Gli impianti a ciclo combinato presentano caratteristiche migliori sia di un ciclo aperto che di un ciclo chiuso presentando un rendimento elettrico vicino al 60% non raggiungibile per i turbogas e per le centrali convenzionali a vapore.
[en] This paper assesses two patterns in transition processes for using them as strategies towards a sustainable energy system, i.e., niche accumulation and hybridisation. Both play important but different roles in transitions. The expected success of these strategies depends on the innovation's history and the innovation context. The different strategies are illustrated with several examples from the energy domain
[en] The thermal efficiency of LWR type reactors can be increased making use of the Tsikl-Durst cycle, where the gas turbine is combined with the nuclear reactor using a steam mixer. The principle of this combined cycle is outlined. It is envisaged that the overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased to 41 - 44%. The total output would be two to three times higher. With advanced light-water reactors (ABWR, AP-600) and advanced gas turbines in combination with the one-way steam generator as developed by Solar Turbines Inc., producing steam at 650 degC to 750 degC, it is feasible to attain a total thermal efficiency of 55%. The combination of two kinds of fuel (nuclear fuel and natural gas) improves operating flexibility of the cycle in various regimes so as to respond to natural gas prices and electricity demands. The gas turbine adds to the nuclear power plant an independent source of power, so that standby dieselgenerators are no more necessary. (P.A.). 1 tab., 2 figs
[en] Highlights: • Develop a comprehensive model for a very advanced cogeneration plant using real data. • Evaluate ME-TVC-MED unit using the latest thermodynamic properties of seawater. • Evaluate the desalination unit contribution to the overall efficiency. • Evaluate the stage exergetic efficiency in the ME-TVC-MED unit. • Numerous possibilities have been suggested to improve the proposed system. - Abstract: A comprehensive model of cogeneration plant for electrical power and water desalination has been developed based on energetic and exergetic analyses using real operational data. The power side is a combined cycle power plant (CCPP), while the desalination side is a multi-effect thermal vapour compression plant coupled with a conventional multi-effect plant (ME-TVC-MED). IPSEpro software was utilized to model the process, which shows good agreement with the manufacturer's data and published research. The thermodynamic properties of saline water were obtained from the latest published data in the literature. The performance of the cogeneration plant was examined for different ambient temperatures, pressure ratios, loads, feed water temperatures, number of effects and entrainment ratios. The results show that gas turbine engines produce the highest level of useful work in the system at around 34% of the total fuel input. At the same time, they constitute a major source of irreversibility, which accounts for 84% of the total exergy destruction in the plant, while the lowest source of irreversibility is in the steam turbine of 3.3% due to the type of working fluid and reheating system. In the ME-TVC-MED desalination unit, the highest source of irreversibilities occurs in the effects and in the thermo-compressor. The first two effects in the ME-TVC parallel section were responsible for about 40.6% of the total effect exergy destruction, which constitutes the highest value among all the effects. Operating the system at full load while reducing ambient temperature, and increasing pressure ratio and feed water temperature, were strongly recommended in order to improve the plant's performance; while increasing the number of effects is always preferable with low entrainment ratio for high cogeneration plant performance and capacity.
[en] The IGCC Sulcis Project foresees the realization of electric power generation plant based on coal gasification with integrated gasification combined cycle-IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle)
[it]Il Progetto IGCC Sulcis prevede la realizzazione di un impianto per la produzione di energia elettrica basato sulla tecnologia di gassificazione del carbone, integrata con un ciclo combinato, IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle)
[en] Although the Braysson cycle constitutes the ideal limit for the Combined Cycle Power Plants, its actual implementation has not been achieved due to the difficulty in building the required isothermal compressor. The present study proposes the incorporation of regulated water injection during the final compression, which could maintain the temperature constant due to the evaporation. The analysis for the thermodynamic implications of the injection on the ideal version of the Braysson cycle indicates that the (ideal cycle) efficiency reduction will be minimal. The study provides an analysis for the water injection rate that will permit such a process and shows that the additional work needed to drive the process will not be affected significantly by the injection. In addition, it shows that the minimum temperature of the Braysson cycle will be lower than the corresponding level of the conventional (Gas-Steam turbine Combined cycle plants), something that could improve the efficiency as well. Finally it shows that the process may be expressed by a polytropic relationship of the type pvβ = constant, where β ∼ 1.06.
[en] This paper presents a performance analysis of state of the art combined cycles power plants burning a number of syngas fuels. The first part of the analysis focuses on the effect of gas composition on the rated performance of the plant drawing two main conclusions. First, higher pressure ratio and lower firing temperature are found at turbine inlet. Second, the pressure at which fuel is supplied to the gas turbine plays an essential role in the power capacity of the engine. With respect to the steam cycle, no major effects are appreciated except for very low LHV fuels. In the second part of the work, the annual performance of the engine subjected to a typical load profile and real ambient and market conditions is studied. Differences in total incomes are appreciated depending on fuel composition and the concern about carbon emissions is highlighted. (author)
[en] The first 750 MW block of the new South Humber Bank gas-fired combined cycle power plant, sited about 300 km north from London, was officially commissioned in September 12th 1997. The project has been a major success story for Imatran Voima Oy (IVO), which developed the concept and managed the project and owns 22.5 % of the plant; and ABB Power Plants Limited, responsible for the turnkey delivery. IVO Generation Services (UK) is responsible for the running and maintenance of the facility. IVO also manages two other existing plants in Britain, at Brigg (240 MW) and Peterborough (360 MW)
[en] In the power generation industry, non utility generators (NUG's) comprise a significant portion of new generation growth as electricity demands exceed existing utility capacities. These NUG's are developed by customers with widely varying experiences; bankers, lawyers, architect engineers, original equipment manufacturers, and other organizations involved in such diverse industries as petrochemical, pulp and paper, and steel making. The demands of these customers can be significantly varied in terms of features such as capacity factor, operability, maintainability, equipment redundancy, acceptable design practices, and many others. In addition, both the utility and NUG industries demand flexibility due to external influences such as regulatory policies, environmental conditions new design technologies, and emerging global markets. All of these factors are subject to wide variation across different market regions and even within a given region. This paper discusses the development of a reference plant design approach which focuses on customer flexibility while maximizing the use of proven designs. This approach allows basic system designs to be modified in a modular fashion to meet the differing demands of utility and NUG customers