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[en] Air temperature measured by automated weather stations is used by growers and other stakeholders to inform their decisions that are affected by local weather conditions. Although modern systems record and transmit weather information remotely at regular time intervals, the spatial resolution of the data is unknown. This study aimed to determine the radius of influence (RI) of daily air temperature and to analyze the dynamic response of RI. An analysis based on the similarity between data recorded at two weather stations as a function of their distance was conducted using daily air temperature data for 158 weather stations in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). The results showed that the mean RI for minimum temperature (20 km) was significantly different from the RI calculated for maximum temperature (23 km). There was also both high spatial and temporal variability. We found that the landscape and season of the year were crucial factors that define the RI of air temperature recorded for a particular location. In flat regions, the RI was greater than in areas where the elevation varied over a short distance, and the RI was smaller during the summer than during any of the other seasons. The results showed that for complex terrain it is not possible to define a general RI for daily air temperature.
[en] From 1998 we are discussing if the eastern area of ZCSB is an allochtonous block named TCD or if it belongs to Dom Feliciano belt with an age of 500 - 700 Ma. This crustal block is difficult to study because Laguna Merin Graben cut it in two around 4000 k m2 crustal fragments distant s more de 100 km between them. Southern block which was named T PE by Masquelín (2006) was demonstrated as allochtonous by Bossi and Gaucher (2004) destroying the Cdf model but seriously complicating the stratigraphic terminology. It is proposed to do some changes in order to profit the general agreement about allochtomy. The CDT with change by Treinta y Tres terrane; T PE become sub - terrain Punta del Este; sub - terrain Cuchilla Dionisio for the septetrional block. From 1998 we are discussing if the eastern area of ZCSB is an allochtonous block named TCD or if it belongs to Dom Feliciano belt with an age of 500 - 700 Ma. This crustal block is difficult to study because Laguna Merín Graben cut it in two around 4000 k m2 crustal fragments distant s more de 100 km between them. Southern block which was named T PE by Masquelín (2006) was demonstrated as allochtonous by Bossi and Gaucher (2004) destroying the CDF model but seriously complicating the stratigraphic terminology. It is proposed to do some changes in order to profit the general agreement about allochtomy. The CDT with change by Treinta y Tres terrain; TPE become sub - terrain Punta del Este; sub - terrain Cuchilla Dionisio for the septetrional block
[en] Data collected during a multiyear, wind-resource assessment over a multi-land-use coastal environment in Belize are used to study the development and decay of wind and turbulence through the morning and evening transitions. Observations were made on three tall masts, forming an inland transect of approximately 5 km. The wind distribution is found to be bimodal and governed by synoptic scales, with onshore and offshore flow regimes. The behavior between the coastal and inland sites is found to be very similar when the flow is directed offshore; for onshore flow, stark differences occur. The mean wind speed at the coastal site is approximately 20% greater than the most inland site and is nearly constant throughout the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, for both flow regimes, the influence of the land–sea breeze circulation is inconsequential relative to the large-scale synoptic forcing. Composite time series are used to study the evolution of sensible heat flux and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the morning and evening transitions. The TKE budget reveals that at the coastal site mechanical production of TKE is much more important than buoyant production. This allows for the unexpected case in which TKE increases through the ET despite the decrease of buoyant TKE production. Multiresolution flux decomposition is used to further study this phenomenon as well as the evolution of the sensible heat flux at differing time scales. We present an idealized schematic to illustrate the timing and structure of the morning and evening transitions for an inland site and a coastal site that are subjected to similar synoptic forcing.
[en] Complex terrain creates small-scale circulations which affect pollen dispersion but may be missed by meteorological observing networks and coarse-grid meteorological models. On volcanic islands, these circulations result from differing rates of surface heating between land and sea as well as rugged terrain. We simulated the transport of bentgrass, ryegrass, and maize pollen from 30 sources within the agricultural regions of the Hawaiian island Kaua’i during climatological conditions spanning season conditions and the La Niña, El Niño, and neutral phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Both pollen size and source location had major effects on predicted dispersion over and near the island. Three patterns of pollen dispersion were identified in response to prevailing wind conditions: southwest winds transported pollen inland, funneling pollen grains through valleys; east winds transported pollen over the ocean, with dispersive tails for the smallest pollen grains following the mean wind and extending as far as the island of Ni’ihau 35 km away; and northeast winds moved pollen inland counter to the prevailing flow due to a sea breeze circulation that formed over the source region. These results are the first to predict the interactions between complex island terrain and local climatology on grass pollen dispersion. As a result, they demonstrate how numerical modeling can provide guidance for field trials by illustrating the common flow regimes present in complex terrain, allowing field trials to focus on areas where successful sampling is more likely to occur.
[en] Since the formation of the Meteorology Group at Brookhaven National Laboratory, experimental diffusion studies have had a prominent part in its program. In recent years primary attention has been given to the dispersion and deposition of particles in the 3 to 10 micron range. These studies have been supplemented during the past ten years by a cooperative project between the Meteorology Group and the Botany Department of the New York State Museum and Science Service. This project is financed mainly by the U.S. Public Health Service and includes studies of dispersion and deposition of pollens from experimental sources of living plants. Since both of these programs involve dispersion over open terrain, an additional project was initiated several years ago to study dispersion of particulate clouds approaching and penetrating a forest. This study has the following objectives: 1. to determine the behaviour of the plume as it approaches the forest edge as a function of release site and meteorological conditions, 2. to determine the dispersion rate within the forest as compared to the rate over open terrain under similar conditions, and 3. to identify the mechanisms important in the removal of particles from the air within the forest. In support of these objectives a comprehensive study is being made of the wind and temperature structure within, above and around the forest. The dispersion experiments are similar in design and scale to others previously conducted over open terrain so results can be compared to other experiments as well as to theory. (author)
[en] An efficient and reliable simulation scheme is of great relevance for the interpretation of the real campaign data analysis and the testing of the different interferometric procedures. In a previous work, an interferometric SAR (INSAR) raw signal simulator has been presented and tested versus canonical scenes. In this paper, a simulation over an actual ground site is presented and discussed in order to fully validate the simulator and to show how it can be employed to get some insight into the physical mechanisms governing the interferogram formation. Use of the simulator is finally suggested in order to support a classification scheme based on ISAR coherency maps
[en] Ensemble modeling (EM), the creation of multiple atmospheric simulations for a given time period, has become an essential tool for characterizing uncertainties in model predictions. We explore two novel ensemble modeling techniques: (1) perturbation of model parameters (Adaptive Programming, AP), and (2) data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter, EnKF). The current research is an extension to work from last year and examines transport on a small spatial scale (<100 km) in complex terrain, for more rigorous testing of the ensemble technique. Two different release cases were studied, a coastal release (SF6) and an inland release (Freon) which consisted of two release times. Observations of tracer concentration and meteorology are used to judge the ensemble results. In addition, adaptive grid techniques have been developed to reduce required computing resources for transport calculations. Using a 20- member ensemble, the standard approach generated downwind transport that was quantitatively good for both releases; however, the EnKF method produced additional improvement for the coastal release where the spatial and temporal differences due to interior valley heating lead to the inland movement of the plume. The AP technique showed improvements for both release cases, with more improvement shown in the inland release. This research demonstrated that transport accuracy can be improved when models are adapted to a particular location/time or when important local data is assimilated into the simulation and enhances SRNL's capability in atmospheric transport modeling in support of its current customer base and local site missions, as well as our ability to attract new customers within the intelligence community.
[en] A three-dimensional wind field model based on the variational technique has been developed for estimating the overall wind patterns over a complex terrain. The three-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations on Cartesian and terrain-following coordinates have been established to obtain the Lagrangian multiplier and the adjusted wind velocity. The simulations were performed to evaluate the variations of the velocity vectors on the hemisphere, half-cylinder, and saddle type obstacles. Also, the wind field model in the terrain-following coordinate has been applied for evaluating the characteristics of wind patterns according to the variations of Gauss precision moduli on the hemispheric topography. The results showed that the horizontal and vertical wind components were strongly governed by the selection of the values of Gauss precision moduli
[en] Under non-neutral stratification and in the presence of topography the dynamics of turbulent flow within a canopy is not yet completely understood. This has, among others, serious implications for the measurement of surface – atmosphere exchange by means of eddy-covariance: for example the measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes are strongly influenced if drainage flows occur during night, when the flow within the canopy decouples from the flow aloft. An improved physical understanding of the behavior of scalars under canopy turbulence in complex terrain is urgently needed. In the present work, we investigate the dynamics of turbulent flow within sloped canopies, focusing on the slope wind and potential temperature. We concentrate on the presence of oscillatory behavior in the flow variables in terms of switching of flow regimes by conducting linear stability analysis. We revisit and correct the simplified theory that exists in the literature, which is based on the interplay between the drag force and the buoyancy. We find that the simplified description of this dynamical system cannot exhibit the observed richness of the dynamics. To augment the simplified dynamical system’s analysis, we make use of large-eddy simulation of a three-dimensional hill covered by a homogeneous forest and analyze the phase synchronization behavior of the buoyancy and drag forces in the momentum budget to explore the turbulent dynamics in more detail.
[en] A real-time dose assessment system(FADAS : Following Accident Dose Assessment System) has been developed for the real-time accident consequence assessment against a nuclear accident. Field tracer experiment near Yonggwang nuclear power plant was performed to improve the accuracy of developed system and to parameterize the site-specific parameters into the FADAS. The mean values and turbulent components of wind profile obtained through field experiment have been reflected to FADAS with site-specific conditions. The simulated results of diffusion model agreed well with the measured data through tracer experiment. The developed system is being used as a basic module of emergency preparedness system in Korea. The diffusion model which can be reflected site-specific parameters will be improved through field experiments continuously