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[en] The principles apply to X-ray contrast media which are incorporated in the human or animal body for the purpose of imaging organs, groups of organs or hollow organs. (orig./HP)
[de]Die Regeln gelten fuer Roentgenkontrastmittel, die zum Zweck der Darstellung von Organen, Organgruppen oder Hohlorganen in den menschlichen oder tierischen Koerper eingebracht werden. (orig./HP)
[en] Three patients with either a history of severe allergic reactions to iodinated contrast or marked renal insufficiency underwent interventional uroradiologic procedures using full-strength gadodiamide (Gd) as a contrast agent in place of iodinated contrast material. The procedures were percutaneous access for nephrostolithotomy, antegrade pyelography with placement of a nephroureteral stent, and a diagnostic nephrostogram with exchange of a nephroureteral stent. Gd was visualized fluoroscopically and produced satisfactory digital radiographs without allergic reaction or worsening renal function. Gd can be useful in guiding interventional uroradiologic procedures when iodinated contrast material is contraindicated.
[en] The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of two balloon-retention-type gastrostomy tubes when the balloons are inflated with two types of contrast materials at different concentrations. Two commonly used balloon-retention-type tubes (MIC and Tri-Funnel) were inflated to the manufacturer's recommended volumes (4 and 20 cm3, respectively) with normal saline or normal saline plus different concentrations of contrast material. Five tubes of each brand were inflated with normal saline and 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% contrast material dilutions, using either nonionic hyperosmolar contrast, or nonionic iso-osmolar contrast. The tubes were submerged in a glass basin containing a solution with a pH of 4. Every week the tubes were visually inspected to determine the integrity of the balloons, and the diameter of the balloons was measured with a caliper. The tests were repeated every week for a total of 12 weeks. The MIC balloons deflated slightly faster over time than the Tri-Funnel balloons. The Tri-Funnel balloons remained relatively stable over the study period for the different concentrations of contrast materials. The deflation rates of the MIC balloons were proportionally related to the concentration of saline and inversely related to the concentration of the contrast material. At high contrast material concentrations, solidification of the balloons was observed. In conclusion, this in vitro study confirms that the use of diluted amounts of nonionic contrast materials is safe for inflating the balloons of two types of balloon-retention feeding tubes. High concentrations of contrast could result in solidification of the balloons and should be avoided.
[en] Iodinated contrast media (ICM) are commonly administered pharmaceutical agents. Most often they are used intravenously and intraarterially. Although iodinated contrast agents are relatively safe and widely used, adverse events occur and questions remain about their use, safety, and interactions. The most important adverse effects of contrast media include hypersensitivity reactions, thyroid dysfunction, and contrast-induced nephropathy. Radiologists must be aware of the risk factors for reactions to contrast media. Nonionic iodinated contrast agents can be divided into monomeric, low-osmolar, and dimeric, iso-osmolar classes. The osmotic characteristics of contrast media have been a significant focus in many investigations of contrast-induced nephropathy
[en] Purpose: To compare ioxaglate and iobitridol for percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) as regards thromboembolic complications, the quality of diagnosis, and renal and general safety.Methods: One hundred and eighty-nine patients were prospectively studied, 98 of whom received ioxaglate, and 91, iobitridol. Twenty-two were secondarily excluded from the evaluation of thromboembolic complications as they did not undergo PTRA.Results: Two hundred and two PTRAs were performed. The total volumes of contrast medium administered and the procedure durations were the same for each patient. In the ioxaglate group, four dissections (3 stents), one occlusive dissection, and two spasms occurred; in the iobitridol group, there were three dissections (all stented), one occlusive dissection (stented), and two spasms. The final angiograms showed four renal infarctions with ioxaglate (2 of which were in patients who were not anticoagulated), two with iobitridol. No significant difference was seen in the incidence of thromboembolic complications when the PTRA was performed after anticoagulation (n=150; 3.9% vs 4%, p=0.78); in the whole population, thromboembolic complications were more frequent in the ioxaglate group but the difference was not significant (5.7% vs 3.7%, p=0.74). The quality of the diagnosis and the general and renal safety were the same in the two groups.Conclusion: Regarding the clotting phenomenon, we recorded as many thromboembolic complications with ioxaglate as with iobitridol.