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[en] The paper presents the problem of the education in radiation protection. All aspects of education are included started with primary school and lasted with very specialized courses for the experts. In the last few years the lack of interest for education in radiation protection was recognized by many agencies included also IAEA and EU commission. In this paper the reasons for this situation will be presented and the way how to promote this subject again. It is not possible to prevent effects of radiation on environment and population if qualified and well educated experts don't exists. The situation in the field of education in radiation protection in Croatia will be also presented. (author)
[en] The discovery of radioactivity has repercussions on both basic and applied science in Croatia. The impact of the discovery in basic science was an indirect one: investigations of the phenomenon itself or relevant investigations on the trail of the atomistic paradigm could not be experimentally pursued in Croatia until the establishment of the Rudjer Boskovic Institute in 1951. Informative, historical and popular accounts on the subject are all we have from that period, with the addition of philosophy discussions enriched with the illustrations taken from the contemporary physics. The first demonstrations of radioactivity took place before the Croatian Medical Assembly in 1904 and 1908. The first one dealt with the general principles of radioactivity, and Crookes' spynthariscope was shown on that occasion, whereas the second one was concerned with the therapeutic value of radioactive spas, and an emanator to produce radon-saturated water was demonstrated. The first institution for radiotherapy was established at the Maternity Hospital in Zagreb in 1931, possessing 453 mg of radium. Mention should also be made of the determination of radioactivity in Croatian mineral springs. Only by the end of this period photographic methods for radiation protection dosimetry and the visualization of heavy ion tracks have been developed. However, it took an impressive amount of work after the Second World War to inform and educate general public, to introduce modern physics to university curricula, and to establish a dedicated national institution, such as the Rudjer Boskovic Institute, in order to enable modern scientific concepts to become an integral part of the Croatian intellectual property. These deeds were largely accomplished thanks to the books and actions of Ivan Supek. (author)
[en] Radioecological investigations regarding fission products in foodstuffs in Croatia are implemented as part of an extended and still ongoing radioactive contamination monitoring programme of the human environment. The programme has been designed and endorsed by the Croatian State Office for Radiological and Nuclear Security and fully harmonized with European legislation, i.e. the European Commission's recommendation of June 2000 on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty. For describing the overall possible impact the contaminants have on the entire region, the most efficient sampler would be one that covers the largest area possible. In this sense, honey has been shown to be an excellent biological indicator for detecting radionuclides but also other pollutants such as heavy metals. In Croatia, radiocaesium nuclides like 137Cs and 134Cs in honey were first investigated after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For both radionuclides, the activity concentrations in honey, which peaked in May 1986, decreased exponentially and the estimated ecological residence time, corrected for radioactive decay, was found to be 1.23 y for 137Cs and 1.07 y for 134Cs. In the early 1990s, activity concentrations in honey for both radionuclides were under the detection limit, but again rose after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Effective radiation doses due to radiocaesium, received by the Croatian population by honey consumption, even in the year of the Chernobyl accident were estimated to be very small, the per caput dose being less than 1 micro Sv. Based on radioecological investigations of honey, we argue that the mobility of honey bees and their ability to integrate all exposure pathways could add another level of confidence to the present monitoring program if honey and other bee-farming products are included in the routine radioecological monitoring programme for the Croatian environment. (author).
[en] The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia, was set up a few years ago. Its establishment was strongly supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the Technical Cooperation Project (CRO 1/004/ Establishing Calibration Services). In the country, this Technical Cooperation Project was supported by the State Office for Standardization and Metrology, State Institute for Radiation Protection and the Ministry of Health. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at Rudjer Boskovic Institute was set up in two calibration rooms. Both calibration rooms are 9.6 metres long and 6 metres wide. Both are properly air conditioned. Their concrete walls are 1 metre and the entrance doors are protected by Pb to prevent of radiation in control rooms, neighbouring rooms and in environment. In the first calibration room placed in the basement two sealed sources share the same six metre long calibration bench (produced by Hopewell Designs, Inc., USA). On one side there is a 30 TBq Co-60 source (December 2004) for the calibration of radiotherapy ionising chambers and other equipment in the field of high dose rate range. On the other side there is a radiation unit consisting of two sealed sources for radiation protection purposes: a Cs-137 source with the activity of 740 MBq (February 2004) and a Co-60 source with the activity of 185 MBq (February 2004). This second source is equipped with three attenuators yielding a tenfold, a hundredfold and a thousand fold attenuation. The second calibration room, placed just above the first, accommodates one X-ray unit (gift from PTB, Germany, ISOVOLT 420, 40-300 kV, 1-20 mA). In front of the X-ray tube there are: (1) aperture wheel assembly designed to modify the beam diameter of the X-ray to meet various beam configurations required for calibration instruments, (2) a set of filter assembly to produce beam definition as called for in the ISO 4037-3, (3) the Half-Value Layer Kit, and (4) a five metre long calibration bench (produced by Hopewell Designs, Inc., USA). All ionisation chambers and electrometers used in SSDL are calibrated in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (PTB, Germany) or in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of the International Atomic Energy Agency.(author)
[en] This paper gives basic information about the history and present situation of nuclear insurance pools in the republics of Croatia and Slovenia, on the legal basis of their establishment and their organization. Furthermore, it gives a brief description on the kinds of insurance provided by the Croatian and the Slovenian pools in the past and present, as well as about their participation in the world-wide reinsurance exchange in this field as a partner to nuclear insurance pools abroad. (author)
[en] Measurements of radon concentrations in schools and kindergartens were performed by means of passive, strippable, nuclear track etched detectors LR - 115 type II (Kodak - Pathe, France). The detectors are paired in the way that one detector (open detector), placed on the circumferential side of the plastic detector vessel, registers total number of alpha particles from radon and its short-lived progenies. At the same time, the other detector (diffusion detector) is placed inside the vessel and it registers only alpha particles emitted by radon. The average radon concentrations in kindergartens and schools of Lika-Senj County are 318 and 317 Bq m"-"3 while for Karlovac County they are 228 and 304 Bq m"-"3 respectively. Moreover, there are three schools in Karlovac County with the average radon concentration higher than 1000 Bq m"-"3, which represents the action level for intervention measures in Croatia. Even more, there are 2.5 percent of rooms in kindergartens and 4 percent of rooms in schools in Lika - Senj County with measured radon concentrations higher than 1000 Bq m"-"3. In Karlovac County there are 2.4 percent of such rooms in kindergartens and 7 percent in schools. Maps of spatial distribution of indoor radon concentrations for homes as well as for kindergartens and schools were created by using the Inverse Distance Weighting interpolation method. This is one of the useful methods for identifying radon prone areas. The authors propose a repetition of measurements in those kindergartens, schools and homes with higher radon concentrations in coordination with the local government. (author).
[en] Site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in Croatia was ended in 1999, nominating Trgovska gora as the potential macrolocation for the facility. Feasibility of the Trgovska gora disposal project was analyzed in a number of studies prepared by APO Ltd. from the mid-nineties up to 2003. An affirmative, though preliminary and largely generic safety assessment was completed. Specific microlocations were selected and analyzed based on literature data (garnished with low-resolution digital satellite pictures), and the best microlocation was tentatively narrowed down to Pavlovo brdo. After 2003, no further activities related to the repository project were undertaken for nearly ten years, until in its public procurement plan for 2013 the Croatian Fund for financing the NPP Krsko decommissioning and waste disposal dedicated over half a million euro to continuation of the project. In general, safe radioactive waste disposal pre-requires establishment of a complex national framework with appropriate functionality and competence; with such a framework established, decisive first steps towards building a repository are to identify potentially suitable locations and to ensure local community consent and cooperation. The rest should mainly be routine. But in Croatia, both lack of proper framework and the project history of indecisiveness may adversely affect further developments. Trgovska gora was designated as the potential location in the national land use plan only after three other potential locations had been dismissed by political decisions based on the largely assumed adverse attitudes of local communities. Repository project now appears to depend on cooperation of a single local community hosting the only potential site. The site has never been visited by any repository project participants, nor has the local community ever been officially contacted in an open and straightforward way, despite the 20-year old history of the project activities. Of course, the local community is not entirely unaware of the wavering interest of the state in building the repository there. Under such circumstances, considerable effort, skill and knowledge will be needed to establish confidence of that community in the authorities and their intentions and competence -and yet all that may not be sufficient. (authors)
[en] This paper contains a basic data about the legislation referring to third party liability for nuclear damage in Croatia. It also, gives some drafting provisions in the Croatian Nuclear Liability Act, but only those which implements a substantial changes compared to the Act currently in force. (author)
[en] This paper provides an overview of possibilities for public participation in proposing legal acts and other energy related documents in the Republic of Croatia and gives author assessment of the Croatian public participation level in the processes carried out. The ways how public has participated in the making of a few officially accepted documents have been analysed and potential benefits of inclusion of a wider circle of interested public have been stated. A comparison of the degree of public involvement in the decision making processes in Croatia and the European Union has been made, with specific emphasis on the adoption of the Third package of energy laws. Several national and EU funded projects aiming at enhancing the Croatian public participation in public decision making processes have been presented and their results given. Finally, possibilities for the improvement of the public participation in the Croatian energy policy making processes are proposed. (author)