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[en] Cysteines possess a unique property among the 20 naturally occurring amino acids: it can be present in proteins in either the reduced or oxidized form, and can regulate the activity of some proteins. Consequently, to augment our previous treatment of the other types of residues, the 13Cα and 13Cβ chemical shifts of 837 cysteines in disulfide-bonded cystine from a set of seven non-redundant proteins, determined by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, were computed at the DFT level of theory. Our results indicate that the errors between observed and computed 13Cα chemical shifts of such oxidized cysteines can be attributed to several effects such as: (a) the quality of the NMR-determined models, as evaluated by the conformational-average (ca) rmsd value; (b) the existence of high B-factor or crystal-packing effects for the X-ray-determined structures; (c) the dynamics of the disulfide bonds in solution; and (d) the differences in the experimental conditions under which the observed 13Cα chemical shifts and the protein models were determined by either X-ray crystallography or NMR-spectroscopy. These quantum-chemical-based calculations indicate the existence of two, almost non-overlapped, basins for the oxidized and reduced -SH 13Cβ, but not for the 13Cα, chemical shifts, in good agreement with the observation of 375 13Cα and 337 13Cβ resonances from 132 proteins by Sharma and Rajarathnam (2000). Overall, our results indicate that explicit consideration of the disulfide bonds is a necessary condition for an accurate prediction of 13Cα and 13Cβ chemical shifts of cysteines in cystines.
[en] The sequence of amino acids in peptide chains consisting of proteins is the most fundamental information of living things. A direct and nondestructive method of reading is highly required as an alternative to the method based on the gene analysis. Luminescence detection is a very sensitive tool for investigating various materials. In order to find characteristic luminescence of each amino acid we study L-cysteine and L-tyrosine using UV laser of 3.36 eV with pulse duration of 1.5 ps. In addition to a common 2.66 eV band of the luminescence we have found 2.89 eV band for L-cysteine and 2.92 eV band for L-tyrosine. It can be interpreted that the side chain makes difference on the luminescence by affecting the peptide linkage or carbonyl group. - Highlights: • Luminescence from L-cysteine and L-tyrosine are studied. • Analyzing the luminescence enables to distinguish those two amino acids. • The lifetimes and the peak photon energies under UV laser excitation are presented.
[en] GAREM1 (Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK1) is an adaptor protein that is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is located at the N-terminal CABIT (cysteine-containing, all in Themis) domain. Here, we identified 14-3-3ε as a GAREM-binding protein, and its binding site is closely located to the NLS. This 14-3-3 binding site was of the atypical type and independent of GAREM phosphorylation. Moreover, the binding of 14-3-3 had an effect on the nuclear localization of GAREM1. Unexpectedly, we observed that the CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. This association might be inhibited by binding of 14-3-3 at the CABIT domain. Our results demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on its NLS in the CABIT domain, which is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 and the C-terminal SAM domain. We suggest that the interplay between 14-3-3, SAM domain and CABIT domain might be responsible for the distribution of GAREM1 in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • 14-3-3ε regulated the nuclear localization of GAREM1 as its binding partner. • The atypical 14-3-3 binding site of GAREM1 is located near the NLS in CABIT domain. • The CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the SAM domain in GAREM1. • Subcellular localization of GAREM1 is affected with its CABIT-SAM interaction
[en] Data on protective groups for the thiol function of cysteine and methods of disulfide bonds formation used in modern peptide chemistry are considered and systematised. The advantages and disadvantages of protective groups, of reagents used for cyclisation, and possible side reactions associated with them are described. The bibliography includes 119 references.
[en] Several matrixes were investigated as to their capacity to slow the release of radioprotective thiols from compressed tablets. The rate and characterization of the release were followed for up to 20 hours. Compressed tablets containing cysteine or cysteamine HCl and some insoluble cellulose derivatives were immersed in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, shaken in a rotating busket (according to USP XIX) for 16-20 hours at 37degC, and assayed spectrophotometrically in a flow-cell system using a peristaltic pump. Data was plotted for different mathematical models of first-order release and found to fit the Higuchi diffusion equation. Results show that the composition of the matrix influences the rate of release of the thiol into the buffer and permits the choice of a suitable matrix composition for slow release. They also indicate that the rate of release is reduced with increasing quantities of matrix substance used. Under fixed experimental conditions the ratio of various components of the matrix is critical, and by modifying that ratio, the rate of release of the radioprotective agent could be controlled. (H.K.)
[en] Mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in a large number of cellular processes. Previously, we reported that treatment of mammalian cells with the cysteine-alkylators, N-ethylmaleimide and ethacrynic acid, induced rapid mitochondrial fusion forming a large reticulum approximately 30 min after treatment. Here, we further investigated this phenomenon using a number of techniques including live-cell confocal microscopy. In live cells, drug-induced fusion coincided with a cessation of fast mitochondrial movement which was dependent on microtubules. During this loss of movement, thin mitochondrial tubules extending from mitochondria were also observed, which we refer to as 'mitochondrial extensions'. The formation of these mitochondrial extensions, which were not observed in untreated cells, depended on microtubules and was abolished by pretreatment with nocodazole. In this study, we provide evidence that these extensions result from of a block in mitochondrial fission combined with continued application of motile force by microtubule-dependent motor complexes. Our observations strongly suggest the existence of a link between microtubule-based mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrial fission
[en] The crystal structure of the RuBisCO assembly chaperone RbcX from a thermophilic cyanobacterium has been determined at 1.7 Å resolution. The dimeric structure is capable of a hinge movement (probably connected with binding of the RuBisCO large subunit) pivoted on a kink in two long antiparallel α-helices. The crystal structure of TeRbcX, a RuBisCO assembly chaperone from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus, a thermophilic organism, has been determined at 1.7 Å resolution. TeRbcX has an unusual cysteine residue at position 103 that is not found in RbcX proteins from mesophilic organisms. Unlike wild-type TeRbcX, a mutant protein with Cys103 replaced by Ala (TeRbcX-C103A) could be readily crystallized. The structure revealed that the overall fold of the TeRbcX homodimer is similar to those of previously crystallized RbcX proteins. Normal-mode analysis suggested that TeRbcX might adopt an open or closed conformation through a hinge movement pivoted on a kink in two long α4 helices. This type of conformational transition is presumably connected to RbcL (the large RuBisCO subunit) binding during the chaperone function of the RuBisCO assembly
[en] A very effective process on Pyroacm resin was developed for solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal cysteine and cysteine ester peptides. The process uses cysteine side chain anchoring to the Pyroacm resin and the Boc protocol for SPPS. The Pyroacm resin showed remarkable stability under standard trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) cleavage condition. TFMSA cleavage of protecting groups generates a peptide-linked resin, which can be subjected to peptide modification reactions. Finally, the peptide can be cleaved from the resin using methoxycarbonylsulfenyl chloride. The utility of this protocol was demonstrated by its applications to the synthesis of model peptides, key intermediates in the preparation of natural products riparin 1.2 and a-factor