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[en] This report describes a method and process assigning a value for system functions to categorize the safety-significant SSCs(Structures, Systems, Components) in graded quality assurance(GQA). In this study, we used the Delphi process for elicitation of the expert opinions. In Delphi Process, it is required to use a guideline for consistency. Therefore, we developed the guideline for SSCs categorization. This guideline was written to assign a value for system functions to screen out the safety-significant SSCs. This guideline provides with the requirement for an ideal expert panel composition, questionnaire, the description for issues and the guide assigning values
[en] Highlights: • Integrated key findings derived from three interdependent analytical phases. • Obtained a collective view of shipping experts pertaining to safety leadership. • Developed and validated a weighted safety leadership model in shipping context. • Effective safety leadership behaviours were articulated, verified and prioritized. • Provided practical standard/basis for accelerating safety leadership development. - Abstract: Recent years have witnessed a growing concern for safety and highlighted the importance of leadership in safety practice within high-risk organizations. By following up and integrating the state-of-art research trends, this study aims at (1) bridging a gap in safety leadership research – i.e., the lack of a holistic understanding of safety leadership contribution at all managerial levels within high-risk organizations; (2) developing and validating a weighted safety leadership model in the context of shipping which incorporates key safety leadership behaviors that may enable researchers and practitioners to better understand and exercise safety leadership in shipping organizations. To systematically fulfill the research aims, this study integrates both numerical and descriptive data by sequentially applying three interdependent research techniques – namely inductive analysis of literature, modified Delphi method and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The study results in a holistic weighted model with concrete safety leadership behaviors at each managerial level, which contributes to the building of theoretical foundations in the domain of safety leadership research and serves as practical standards for accelerating safety leadership development in shipping organizations.
[en] This Paper aimed at looking for the new growth engines in the nuclear R and D field which leads the national prosperity and people's welfare in the 21st Century. As new growth engines in the nuclear R and D field, 17 innovative technologies(eight nuclear energy innovation system technologies and nine radiation fusion technologies) were selected. Selected technologies were evaluated through a expert group's peer review in accordance with criteria such as the aspect of technology, economy, and national strategy. In accordance with the expected commercialization time of the innovative technologies in the leading countries, these were categorized into two or three groups and In the aspect of their technology development level, 20 ∼ 40% technological gaps were shown. According to the business aspect, it was expected that innovative nuclear technologies selected as the new growth engines would have world markets of the range of 0.01 ∼ 100 billion $/year and the sales of 0.001 ∼ 10 billion $/year. Technology development strategy was suggested through colligation of the expert survey and an innovation theory. From the viewpoint of innovation stage, most of new growth engines in the nuclear R and D field were in position of the transitional phase(world) and the adaption stage(home). It was required that process and product technologies should be standardization in accordance with each innovation stage. For the successful commercialization, it was more important that R and D capability in R and D institutions should be improved and that appropriate funding and R and D infra should be well established and supportive. The results of this study will contribute to the establishment of the effective technology development strategy in the nuclear R and D field
[en] We present a set of indicators of vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate variability, and by extension climate change, derived using a novel empirical analysis of data aggregated at the national level on a decadal timescale. The analysis is based on a conceptual framework in which risk is viewed in terms of outcome, and is a function of physically defined climate hazards and socially constructed vulnerability. Climate outcomes are represented by mortality from climate-related disasters, using the emergency events database data set, statistical relationships between mortality and a shortlist of potential proxies for vulnerability are used to identify key vulnerability indicators. We find that 11 key indicators exhibit a strong relationship with decadally aggregated mortality associated with climate-related disasters. Validation of indicators, relationships between vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and the sensitivity of subsequent vulnerability assessments to different sets of weightings are explored using expert judgement data, collected through a focus group exercise. The data are used to provide a robust assessment of vulnerability to climate-related mortality at the national level, and represent an entry point to more detailed explorations of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. They indicate that the most vulnerable nations are those situated in sub-Saharan Africa and those that have recently experienced conflict. Adaptive capacity - one element of vulnerability - is associated predominantly with governance, civil and political rights, and literacy. (author)
[en] Spectral moments in semileptonic B decays provide much information on the theoretical parameters describing these transitions. The DELPHI collaboration has measured the three first spectral moments of the hadronic mass distribution and of the lepton energy spectrum. From them, non-perturbative parameters such as the heavy quark masses and the b-quark kinetic energy value are determined. Using different formalisms, the value of the CKM matrix element Vcb is extracted with higher and better controlled accuracy. (Author) 7 refs
[en] This study attempts to review and analyse the critical issues that afflict the power sector of Kerala, a developing State in India. For this purpose a Delphi study, contacting experts in the field was conducted. The paper illustrates the process followed for the conduct of Delphi survey and evaluates the responses obtained. Consensus among experts could be arrived at on various issues related to Kerala power sector in two rounds of Delphi survey. The expert-opinion concluded on various issues is discussed in the context of the present energy shortage faced by the State. The experts participated in the Delphi survey unanimously stressed on the urgent need for an integrated approach in the power sector planning process of the State. They also emphasised on the imperativeness for exploiting the demand side management potential of the State to alleviate energy crisis in future. The study fetched informative and revealing results, which may aid to formulate and review future planning strategies for the expansion of power sector of the State
[en] Several new particle searches have been performed in the DELPHI experiment involving τ leptons in the resulting final state. The topology and special characteristics of the T leptons have been used to discriminate the signal from the Standard Model background. Limits on new particles have been set, playing an important role the channels with τ leptons
[en] Background and purpose: During the first decade of the 21st century a number of important European randomized studies were published. In order to help shape clinical practice based on best scientific evidence from the literature, the International Conference on 'Multidisciplinary Rectal Cancer Treatment: Looking for an European Consensus' (EURECA-CC2) was organized in Italy under the endorsement of European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), European Society of Surgical Oncology (ESSO), and European Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ESTRO). Methods: Consensus was achieved using the Delphi method. The document was available to all Committee members as a web-based document customized for the consensus process. Eight chapters were identified: epidemiology, diagnostics, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, treatment toxicity and quality of life, follow-up, and research questions. Each chapter was subdivided by a topic, and a series of statements were developed. Each member commented and voted, sentence by sentence thrice. Sentences upon which an agreement was not reached after voting round no. 2 were openly debated during a Consensus Conference in Perugia (Italy) from 11 December to 13 December 2008. A hand-held televoting system collected the opinions of both the Committee members and the audience after each debate. The Executive Committee scored percentage consensus based on three categories: 'large consensus', 'moderate consensus', and 'minimum consensus'. Results: The total number of the voted sentences was 207. Of the 207, 86% achieved large consensus, 13% achieved moderate consensus, and only 3 (1%) resulted in minimum consensus. No statement was disagreed by more than 50% of the members. All chapters were voted on by at least 75% of the members, and the majority was voted on by >85%. Conclusions: This Consensus Conference represents an expertise opinion process that may help shape future programs, investigational protocols, and guidelines for staging and treatment of rectal cancer throughout Europe.
[en] Transparency and certainty are essential qualities for an acceptable and trusted valuation method. Based on the evaluation of the expert judgement method developed in the Delphi I study both of these criteria may be only partially accomplished by such a method. As for the technical procedure the method is well documented and transparency is good. Argumentation of the judgements, however, should be increased. The quality of the valuation indexes is explicitly available, but their certainty is very low for most interventions. The opinions of the experts differ much from each other. How much this depends on different values and how much on differences in knowledge etc. is impossible to assess. Also, how much the technique used and the statistical handling of the expert answers may have impacted the eventual scores of different interventions is difficult to assess. However, application of the expert judgement by means of the Delphi-technique to LCA valuation is a new idea, and, consequently, the method is still very much under development, far from maturity. This should be taken into account when considering the results out of the evaluation of the case study, which was the third of the kind in Europe
[en] In the present work, b hadron decays to 'wrong sign charm' mesons, b → D-bar0 X, b → D- X and b → Ds- X, are studied using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment in the years 1994 and 1995, and the corresponding branching fractions are extracted. Decays b → c-bar are expected to occur through the Cabibbo favored transitions b → cW- and W- → cbar s, and hence wrong sign charm decays are in fact double charm transitions. The interest in this type of b decays is triggered by different motivations. At first, wrong sign charm decays provide evidence for an alternative mechanism leading to the production of charmed mesons in b decay ('upper vertex charm'), and, second, the double charm rate is related to nc, the mean number of charm quarks (and anti-quarks) produced per b decay, nc=1 + Br(b → c c-bar s). Predictions of the semileptonic B meson branching fraction, based on the heavy quark effective theory (HQET) and the heavy quark expansion (HQE), also fix the value of nc. By measuring the double charm rate, we can thus probe these predictions. The measurement of the inclusive wrong sign branching fractions proceeds through the following steps: At first, the charmed meson decays D0 → K- π+, D+ → K- π+ π+ and Ds+→ φ π+ → K+ K- π+ are exclusively reconstructed in the DELPHI data. The charge of the c quark confined inside the charmed meson is determined by the charge of the kaon (D0, D+) or by the charge of the pion (Ds+). The b quark charge at decay time in the charmed meson hemisphere is estimated by using identified particles. A neural network approach is adopted. By correlating both charge informations, we obtain the main discriminant variable for selecting wrong sign mesons. We measure the following branching ratios: Br(b → D-bar X)=(9.3 ± 1.7(stat) ± 1.3(syst))% and Br(b → Ds- X)=(10.3 ± 1.1(stat) ± 2.9(syst))% (the first error is statistical, the second one systematic). This result is compatible with previous measurements by other experiments. It can also be converted into a measurement of nc: nc=1.211 ± 0.044. (author)