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[en] The goal of the RF desalination programme has been to develop small power floating nuclear seawater desalination complex based on KLT-40 reactor, originally developed for ship propulsion, as an energy source. Russia has sufficient fresh water resource rather evenly distributed over country territory (except for several specific conditions where sea or brackish water desalination is required for reliable long term potable water supply) and only limited internal deployment of this system is expected. Therefore, the development programme is mostly oriented to external market. Development of the floating nuclear desalination complex goes in parallel and is backed by the project of floating nuclear electricity and heat cogeneration plant using two KLT-40 reactors. This plant producing up to 70 MW(e) of electricity and up to 50 Gcal/of heat for district heating is now at the basic design stage and planned to be implemented around the year 2000 in Russia, at the Arctic Sea area
[en] In November this year an Agency symposium in Madrid will examine the latest developments and possibilities in the use of nuclear power for obtaining fresh water by desalination. A number of projects for this purpose have been announced, but the only one under construction is at Shevchenko, USSR, close to the Caspian Sea. (author)
[en] This work enters within the framework of a feasability study of the project of water desalination using nuclear energy carried out in collaboration with the National Center of Nuclear Sciences and Technologiy it aims at the same time technological and economic choice of a durable solution to the problem of water and electricity provisioning in Tunisia. (author). 90 refs
[en] At the current stage of studies of Guiding Schemes for Integrated Planning hydrographic basins, and all the various schemes considered for the development of water resources and the transfer possibilities provided for, some hydrographic basins remain in a deficit situation in the prospect of 2020, especially Oum-Er-Rbia (240 Mm3), Tensift (60 Mm3) and the Souss-Massa (140 Mm3). Besides, it is worth mentioning that the drought periods recently experienced have also shown that the available hydraulic potential is very vulnerable to rainfall deficits, which could lead to deficits, well before 2020. In this respect to preserve the future in the area of production and mobilization of water resources, it is more judicious to reconsider the planning of conventional water resources within the framework of a global vision that also integrates the use of unconventional water resources, especially desalination of sea water for Drinking Water Supply (DWS), mainly in the basins of Tensift, Souss-Massa and the South Atlas. Already, the future sites for the establishment of sea water desalination plants for DWS are to be located at the level of cities situated in the hydrographic basins, especially the the zones overlooking the Atlantic coast. It is the case mainly of Agadir, Tan-Tan and Essaouira. In 1977, a first desalination plant using the technique of mechanical vapor compression was set up m Boujdour. Its production capacity stood at 250 m3/day. This plant was renovated in 1990 and operates normally. Seeking to face the demand of drinking water in the Southern Provinces and to fill the water deficit amplified by the region's population and industrial development, ONEP strengthened drinking water production by setting up two RO (Reverse osmosis) plants in Boujdour (800 m3/d) and Laayoune (7,000 m3/d). (author)
[en] This paper presents an update of a dynamic library of reverse osmosis plants (ROSIM). This library has been developed in order to be used for optimization, simulation, controller testing or fault detection strategies and a simple fault tolerant control is tested. ROSIM is based in a set of components representing the different units of a typical reverse osmosis plant (as sand filters, cartridge filters, exchanger energy recoveries, pumps, membranes, storage tanks, control systems, valves, etc.). Different types of fouling (calcium carbonate, iron hydroxide, biofouling) have been added and the mathematical model of the reverse osmosis membranes, proposed in the original library, has been improved.
[en] The use of small or medium size nuclear reactors for the desalination of sea water has gained economic interest since the increase of oil prices. These reactors, with a wide range of power from 135 to 1,100Mwth, are parrticularly interesting because their production of fresh water or electricity is tailored to the present need. The replacement of conventional fuel boilers by nuclear reactor boilers does not change the traditional desalination technology and alters very little the coupling of the electricity and water producing parts of the plant. It is a reasonable assumption that the performance of desalination plants will increase with the optimization of the design technology of a mixed plant. The cost of the water produced in a mixed plant is mainly related to local conditions and to the method of splitting the cost between water and electricity. It is therefore impossible to give in this paper a cost for the fresh water production
[fr]L'utilisation de reacteurs nucleaires de petite ou moyenne puissance au dessalement de l'eau de mer est devenue economiquement envisageable depuis la hausse du prix des produits petroliers. Ces reacteurs, dont une gamme assez large existe, de 135 a 1100 Mwth, sont d'autant plus interessants que les productions d'eau douce ou d'electricite qu'ils sont susceptibles de fournir sont a la mesure de la demande actuelle. L'introduction de ces chaudieres nucleaires a la place de chaudieres au fuel ne modifie en rien les techniques connues de dessalement et assez peu les schemas de couplage entre la partie productrice d'electricite et la partie productrice d'eau douce. On peut simplement penser que le taux de performance des usines de dessalement, resultant de l'optimisation technico-economique de la centrale mixte, ira en croissant. Le probleme du cout de l'eau produite par la centrale mixte depend essentiellement des conditions economiques locales et de la methode de repartition des couts entre l'eau et l'electricite. Il n'est donc pas possible de donner ici un cout d'eau dessalee
[en] The author shows the needs of the sea water desalination for the dry countries. The main technique is the reverse osmosis. It requires electricity and its development needs big electric power plants. For economical and ecological reasons, the nuclear energy seems well appropriate. Libya is for instance very interested in this technique, because of their water shortage problem. (A.L.B.)
[en] The subject of my lecture is the use of nuclear energy for sea water desalination. During this study course this is the only lecture we will have on desalination and therefore we have many points to cover. I propose to cover these points in the following order: (1) Determining the feasibility, of nuclear desalination (2) Nuclear desalination and plant cycles (3) Additional nuclear desalination plant considerations and recent desalination developments. In several cases, whore there is only time for a summary, there is a more complete treatment in the Appendices.
[en] The objective of this study is to assess the economics of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) desalination plant in Korea through DEEP (Devaluation Economic Evaluation Program). SMART is mainly designed for the dual purpose of producing water and electricity with the total capacity of 100 MWe which 10 MWe is used for water production and the remains for the electric generation. SMART desalination plant using MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) process is in the stage of the commercial development and its cost information is also being accumulated. In this circumstances, the economic assessment of nuclear desalination by SMART and the effect of water(or electric) supply price to the regional economy is meaningful to the policy maker. This study is focused on the case study analysis about the economics of SMART desalination plant and the meanings of the case study result. This study is composed of two parts. One is prepared to survey the methodology regarding cost allocation between electricity and water in DEEP and the other is for the economic assessment of SMART. The cost allocation methods that have been proposed or used can be classified into two main groups, one is the cost prorating method and the other is the credit method. The cost of an product item in the dual-purpose plant can be determined differently depending on the costing methods adopted. When it comes to applying credit method adopted in this thesis, the production cost of water depends on what kind of the power cost will be chosen in calculating the power credit. This study also analyses the changes of nuclear desalination economics according to the changes of the important factors such as fossil fuel price. I wish that this study can afford to give an insight to the policy maker about SMART desalination plant. (authors)