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[en] Factors which significantly affect product reliability are of great interest to reliability practitioners. This paper proposes a bootstrap-based methodology for identifying significant factors when both location and scale parameters of the smallest extreme value distribution vary over experimental factors. An industrial thermostat experiment is presented, analyzed, and discussed as an illustrative example. The analysis results show that 1) the misspecification of a constant scale parameter may lead to misidentify spurious effects; 2) the important factors identified by different bootstrap methods (i.e., percentile bootstrapping, bias-corrected percentile bootstrapping, and bias-corrected and accelerated percentile bootstrapping) are different; 3) the number of factors affecting 10th percentile lifetime significantly is less than the number of important factors identified at 63.21th percentile. - Highlights: • Product reliability is improved by design of experiments under both scale and location parameters of smallest extreme value distribution vary with experimental factors. • A bootstrap-based methodology is proposed to identify important factors which affect 100pth lifetime percentile significantly. • Bootstrapping confidence intervals associating experimental factors are obtained by using three bootstrap methods (i.e., percentile bootstrapping, bias-corrected percentile bootstrapping, and bias-corrected and accelerated percentile bootstrapping). • The important factors identified by different bootstrap methods are different. • The number of factors affecting 10th percentile significantly is less than the number of important factors identified at 63.21th percentile.
[en] The present work deals with development and validation of a novel, robust, precise and accurate spectrophotometric method, for the estimation of vilazodone hydrochloride in tablets using the principle of Quality by Design (QbD). A fractional factorial design (FFD) was employed for initial parameter screening. Further the screened parameters were subjected to central composite design (CCD) for evaluating method robustness and method optimization. Different statistical parameters were evaluated to decide appropriateness of experimental data. Vilazodone shows absorption maximum at 285 nm using methanol. Factor screening slit width and sampling interval were identified as critical method variables, which were further evaluated by a CCD. Good linearity was obtained for vilazodone in the range of 5-60 μg/ mL with R"2 > 0.999. The method was found to be accurate with good average % recovery (more than 100 %). Developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Based on QbD development of spectrophotometric method ensured that quality is built into the method. The method was robust and can be applied for determination of the vilazodone in pharmaceutical dosage form. (author)
[en] The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, lightwater cooled, pressurized reactor of medium generating capacity (1000 MWt, or about 335 MWe). It has been under development since the turn of the century by an international team - led by Westinghouse - that includes 19 organizations from 10 countries. In year 2002 it has initiated the pre-application review with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), aiming at final design approval around 2010, and deployment in next decade (about 2015), consistent with the prediction of the growing energy supply gap in both developing and developed countries. This paper describes the reactor layout (i.e., its integral design, with the steam generators, pumps, pressurizer and control rod drive mechanisms all included inside the reactor vessel, together with the core, control rods, and neutron reflector/shield) and discusses the unique safety-by-designTM IRIS philosophy. This approach, by eliminating accidents at the design stage, or decreasing their consequences and probabilities when outright elimination is not possible, provides a very powerful first level of defense in depth. The ''safety-bydesign'' TM allows a significant reduction and simplification of the passive safety systems, which not only improves its safety but simultaneously reduces the overall cost. Moreover, it supports licensing the power plant with reduced off-site emergency response requirements. The modular IRIS - with each module rated at ∼335 MWe - is an ideal size for smaller energy grids as it allows introducing sequentially single modules in regions only requiring a few hundred MWs at a time. IRIS naturally can be also deployed in multiple modules in areas requiring a larger amount of power increasing with time, thus fulfilling the needs of larger, developed countries as well. The performed top-down economic analysis indicates that the cost of generated electricity is competitive with other nuclear and non-nuclear power plants. With its moderate size and short construction time, IRIS significantly reduces the financial burden and presents a viable solution for markets (or countries) with limited investment capital. (author)
[en] Conclusions: No violation of design limits has been indicated by calculations done; No direct need for modifications was identified by DBA analysis; Sophisticated code specifically developed for bubble condensers will be very helpful to confirm previous conclusions; Large scale experiments could reduce doubts about functioning of the bubble condenser; Functioning of the containment shall be better investigated for medium size breaks; these breaks should be analysed over sufficiently long time; A basis for limitation of the containment leakages should be developed or defined
[en] This report deals not only with the latest status of Siemens/Interatom's HTR-Module but also reflects the latest engineering and licensing progress of the HTR-Module against the background of the specified design requirements and of the discussions on passively safe reactors. Therefore, I intend to report also about two examples of the accident analysis - one design basis accident, i.e. the leak-before-break of the reactor pressure vessel and one beyond design accident, i. e. massive water ingress
[en] The report describes the Mark II fuel assemblies of the first test zone ring of the third core of KNK II and their operational behavior. The tasks and the design of the assemblies and their individual components are described, and the criteria, methods and results of their design are presented. With the help of enveloping proofs the respectation of the design targets and criteria is evidenced for the foreseen residence time of 720 equivalent full-power days
[de]Der Bericht beschreibt die Mark II Kranzelemente des dritten Kerns der KNK II und ihr Betriebsverhalten. Es werden die Aufgaben und der Aufbau der Elemente und ihrer Einzelkomponenten beschrieben, und es werden Methoden, Kriterien und Ergebnisse ihrer Auslegung dargelegt und begruendet. Anhand abdeckender Nachweise wird die Einhaltung der gesetzten Auslegungsziele und Kriterien fuer die vorgesehene Standzeit von 720 Vollasttagen gezeigt
[en] The report describes the driver zone fuel assemblies without moderator of the second core of KNK II and their behavior during the operation period of 455 equivalent full-power days. The tasks and the design of the assemblies and their individual components are described, and the criteria, methods and results of their design are presented. With the help of generally valid standards for strength criteria the capacitance of the assemblies and their components is evidenced, and the fulfilment of the design criteria is shown
[de]Der Bericht beschreibt die Treiberzonen-Elemente ohne Moderator der zweiten Beladung von KNK II und ihr Verhalten waehrend der Betriebsperiode von 455 Vollasttagen. Es werden die Aufgaben und der Aufbau der Elemente und ihrer Einzelkomponenten beschrieben, und es werden Methoden, Kriterien und Ergebnisse ihrer Auslegung dargelegt. Anhand allgemein gueltiger Standards fuer Festigkeitskriterien wird die Belastbarkeit der Elemente und Einzelkomponenten nachgewiesen, und es wird die Erfuellung der Auslegungskriterien gezeigt
[en] This book gives design of molded plastics, design of press product, design of die casting products, the application of communication terminal design, application and design of machine elements(screw, spring, bearing, gear, retaining ridge, drawing standards, KS and JIS material marks list), 3D CAD, concurrent engineering of product design, creative concept design.
[en] This paper describes the recent progress of electromagnetic analysis research for fusion reactors including methods, codes, verification tests and some applications. Due to the necessity of the research effort for the structural design of large tokamak devices since the 1970's with the help of the introduction of new numerical methods and the advancement of computer technologies, three-dimensional analysis methods have become as practical as shell approximation methods. The electromagnetic analysis is now applied to the structural design of new fusion reactors. Some more modeling and verification tests are necessary when the codes are applied to new materials with nonlinear material properties. (orig.)
[en] Advanced reactors are designed with an aim of maximum safety, optimized fuel utilization and effective system design. Safety aspects in reactor designs are being viewed for all possible vulnerabilities, and as a result, robust self-regulating passive safety features have been favored in Gen IV and advanced reactor designs. In addition to passive systems, the accidents scenarios at Fukushima indicate the dire need of reliable and stand-alone self-powered sensors, for monitoring plant critical parameters for effective damage control actions. There is a strong need for plant critical data management and situation awareness during the unavailability of all conventional power sources in a nuclear power plant, during extended station blackout (SBO) conditions. These self-powered sensors would assist the operators in managing events like SBO and help in containing any Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) conditions, well away from the public domain