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[en] We are investigating the transfer of fallout cesium-137 from soil to browse to moose (Alces alces) to wolf (Canis lupis) to promote our understanding of the movement of radionuclides through natural food chains. The first part of this study is concerned with moose food habits. Early winter food habits of moose from Hecla Island and Manitoba Game Hunting Area 26 in south central and south eastern Manitoba were studied. In 86 rumen samples, 25 food types were identified. Three methods of food habit determination were used: (1) percentage occurrence of food types, (2) subjective abundance scores and (3) percentage dry weight. All three methods yielded very similar results
[en] Highlights: • Moderate and severe caloric restriction exert different effect on cardiomyocytes. • Moderate caloric restriction alleviates the progression of pyroptosis. • Severe caloric restriction promotes the progression of pyroptosis. An unhealthy diet is a major risk factor for cardiac diseases. Most researches focus on high fat diet, little is known about the detrimental effects of starvation on heart.
[en] Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is an annual crop grown widely in the tropical regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. It thrives in sandy-loam soils with low organic matter and in climate with low rainfall and high temperature. Cassava could also response more with manure fertilization. Cassava tubers contain high levels of energy and minimal levels of crude protein, have been used as readily fermentable energy in ruminant rations, and have been used extensively as a feed for livestock. Recent attempts have been made to develop new products using cassava chips as an energy source with urea as non-protein nitrogen (NPN). Two new cassava based products have been developed: cassarea and cassaya. Cassarea was formulated to contain the following ingredients: 57.1% Cassava chips + 9.9% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea I, 30% CP); 83.6% Cassava chips + 13.4% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea II, 40% CP); 80.2% Cassava chips + 16.8% urea and 3% tallow (Cassarea III, 50% CP). Cassarea was tested for rumen degradability using the nylon bag technique and was found to have a 46.2 to 56.7% effective DM degradability. Further investigations with Cassarea II (40% CP) showed that it could be used to replace SBM in the rations of lactating cows, but supplementation with a rumen by-pass protein such as cottonseed meal would be recommended. Cassaya (30% CP) is a product formulated using chopped whole cassava crop hay (85%) + soybean meal (5%) + cassava chips (5%) + urea (2%) + tallow (2%) + sulphur (1%), mixing with water, pressed through a pelleting machine and sun-dried to at least 85% DM. The use of Cassaya in lactating dairy cows as a protein source proved to be efficient in promoting rumen fermentation, improved milk yield and composition and providing an increased economical return. Moreover, cassava hay (CH) has been applied in ruminant nutrition as a high-quality protein supplement for dairy cattle, beef and buffalo production. CH consists of whole crop of cassava harvested at 2-4 months of growth. The stems with leaves are chopped into 3 to 5-cm lengths and then sun-dried for 2 to 3 d to attain DM of about 80 to 90%. Cassava hay contains a high level of protein (25% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (CT) (4% of DM) and appreciable amount of essential minerals (e.g. Mg, K). In comparison with SBM, CH has a higher concentration of RUP, which is beneficial since it can supply total AA for absorption in the lower gut. The AA profiles of CH were relatively comparable with SBM while methionine in CH was higher. CT was generally higher in matured cassava leaf but was lower in CH harvested at younger stage. Reed reported that if CT in the feeds exceeded 6% of DM, it would reduce feed intake and overall digestibility. However, if CT is only 2 to 4% of DM, they would help to protect protein from rumen digestion, thereby increasing total by-pass protein. Feeding trials with different class of animals is shown. The data revealed that CH enhanced rumen fermentation and increased milk yield and composition. Furthermore, supplementation with CH to dairy cows could markedly reduce concentrate requirements. In addition, CH supplementation in dairy cattle could increase milk thiocyanate and thus, possibly enhance milk quality and storage, especially in smallholder-dairy farming. CT contained in cassava hay has also been shown to have potential for reducing gastrointestinal nematodes and therefore, acts as an anthelmintic agent. cassava can be formulated as a sole resource of nutritious diets for productive ruminants. Therefore, cassava has great potential to increase the productivity and profitability of sustainable livestock production especially under food-feed-system. (author)
[en] The effect of different dietary carbohydrates on food intake, body weight and nitrogen balance of adult rats fed 5 per cent protein diet ad-libitum for 14, 24, and 45 days or restricted to 70 per cent of their normal food intake for 10 and 31 days was studied. No significant difference in food intake and body weight on either of treatments was observed. Nitrogen balance studies indicated that rats fed ad-libitum or restricted diet having starch as a source of dietary carbohydrate utilized nitrogen more efficiently than sucrose fed animals. Possible explanations have been discussed. Regression equations were calculated and it was found from the regression lines that minimum calories and nitrogen intake to maintain nitrogen equilibrium under experimental conditions were 123 kcal and 270 mg N per kg 3/4/day on starch based diet compared with 136 kcal and 295 mg N per kg 3/4/day on sucrose diet respectively
[en] This study determined how supplementing bahiagrass hay (Paspalum notatum Flugge cv. Pensacola) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal or warm-season legume hays affects intake, digestibility, and N utilization by lambs. Forty-two Dorper x Katadhin crossbred lambs (30.6 ± 5.5 kg) were fed ad libitum 6-wk regrowth bahiagrass hay (73.8% NDF, 8.1% CP) supplemented with nothing (Control), soybean meal, or hays of annual peanut [Arachis hypogaea (L.) cv. Florida MDR98; 46.2% NDF, 14.7% CP], cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Iron clay; 62.2% NDF, 11.7% CP], perennial peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth. cv. Florigraze; 43.3% NDF, 15.2% CP), pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. cv. Georgia two; 78.6% NDF, 12.2% CP], or soybean (cv. Pioneer 97B52; 59.0% NDF, 13.5% CP). Legume hays were supplemented at 50% of total diet DM and soybean meal was supplemented at a level (4.25% of diet DM) that matched the average dietary CP content (10.8%) of the legume hay-supplemented diets. The pulses were harvested at respective maturities that maximized both DM yield and nutritive value, and the peanuts were first cuttings. Diets were fed to six lambs per treatment for two consecutive 21-d periods. Supplementation with hays of annual and perennial peanut, cowpea, and soybean increased (P ≤ 0.002) DMI, but apparent DM digestibility was only increased (P ≤ 0.03) by supplementation with annual or perennial peanut hay. Nitrogen intake, digestibility, and retention were increased (P < 0.001) by all supplements and responses were greater when annual or perennial peanut hays were fed. Ruminal ammonia concentration was increased (P ≤ 0.01) by all legume hay supplements. Microbial N synthesis and ruminally-degraded OM were increased (P ≤ 0.03) by perennial and annual peanut supplementation, but efficiency of microbial synthesis was not different (P ≥ 0.52) among diets. Annual and perennial peanuts were the most promising legume hay supplements for the lambs followed by cowpea and soybean. (author)
[en] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of morphology and structure of bone tissue in the irradiated mandibular bone in rats which were fed a low calcium diet. In order to carry out this experiment, 64 seven-week old Sprague- Dawley strain rats weighing about 150gms were selected and equally divided into one experimental group of 32 rats and one control group with the remainder. The experimental group and the group were then subdivided into two groups when the rats reached ten-week old, 16 were assigned rats for each subdivided group, exposed to irradiation. The two irradiation groups received a single dose of 20Gy in the jaws area only and irradiated with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The rats in the control and experimental groups were serially termination, both sides of the dead rats mandibular bodies were removed and fixed with 10% neutral formalin. One side of the mandibular body was radiographed with a soft X-ray apparatus. Thereafter, the obtained microradiographs were observed by a light microscope. The remaining side of the mandibular bone was further decalcified and embedded in paraffin as using the general method. The specimen ectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Rabit Anti-Human Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, observed by a light microscope. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Microradiogram revealed that thinning of the cortex and a decrease in the trabecula of the interradicular bone and mandibular body were observed and noted from the start to finish throughout the experiment in the non-irradiated rats on the low calcium diet rather than in the non-irradiated rats on the normal diet.In microscopic observation, there were marked osteolytic changes in the center of the bone marrow. 2. Microradiogram revealed that thinning of the cortex and a decrease in the trabecula of interradicular bone and mandibular body were more marked after 7 days in the irradiated rats in the low calcium diet rather than in the non-irradiated rats on the low calcium diet. 3. Microradiogram revealed that thinning of the cortex and a decrease in the trabecula of interradicular bone and mandibular body were more marked from the start to finish throughout the experiment in the irradiated rats on the low calcium diet than in the irradiated rats on the normal diet.In microscopic observation, there were no osteolytic changes noted in the irradiated rats on the normal diet. 4. In immunocytochemical findings, a few bone marrow cells including Tumor Necrosis Factor were observed in the irradiated rats on the normal diet, but was not observed in the rats on the low calcium diet.
[en] Cognitive impairment is a brain dysfunction characterized by neuropsychological deficits in attention, working memory, and executive function. Maternal obesity and consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) in the offspring has been suggested to have detrimental consequences for offspring cognitive function through its effect on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal obesity and offspring HFD exposure on the brain metabolome of the offspring.
[en] Dental caries is a disease of multifactorial etiology and results from a complex interaction between both cariogenic and protective influences acting on the teeth. Though diet plays a major role in the causation of dental caries it has been a common mistake to over-simplify the relationship. Dietary manipulation is also extremely difficult to achieve thus limiting its role in the prevention of caries. Accordingly, alternative preventive measures such as the use of fissure sealants and fluoride which enhance the resistance of the host to disease and are of proven efficacy are more likely to be successful in the control and prevention of dental caries. (author)
[en] Dietary additives (cow's milk, rat diet or some rat diet ingredients) were administered to 6-day-old artificially fed suckling rats. 141Ce was administered orally. Rat diet ingredients (fish meal, sunflower meal, alfalfa, cane molasses and premix) were found to be extremely efficient in reducing cerium retention even if administered two days after 141Ce application. (author) 4 refs.; 1 tab