Results 1 - 10 of 26708
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[en] Reliably detecting the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy is of great importance in understanding the birth and evolution of the universe. One of the difficulties in CMB experiments is the domination of measured CMB anisotropy maps by the Doppler dipole moment from the motion of the antenna relative to the CMB. For each measured temperature, the expected dipole component has to be calculated separately and then subtracted from the data. A small error in dipole direction, antenna pointing direction, sidelobe pickup contamination, and/or timing synchronism can introduce a significant deviation in the dipole-cleaned CMB temperature. After a full-sky observational scan, the accumulated deviations will be structured with a pattern closely correlated with the observation pattern with artificial anisotropies, including artificial quadrupole, octupole, etc., on large scales in the final CMB map. Such scan-induced anisotropies on large scales can be predicted by the true dipole moment and observational scan scheme. Indeed, the expected scan-induced quadrupole pattern of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission is perfectly in agreement with the published WMAP quadrupole. With the scan strategy of the Planck mission, we predict that scan-induced anisotropies will also produce an artificially aligned quadrupole. The scan-induced anisotropy is a common problem for all sweep missions and, like the foreground emissions, has to be removed from observed maps. Without doing so, CMB maps from COBE, WMAP, and Planck are not reliable for studying the CMB anisotropy.
[en] The new derivation of the equation of the spin precession is given for a particle possessing electric and magnetic dipole moments. Contributions from classical electrodynamics and from the Thomas effect are explicitly separated. A fully covariant approach is used. The final equation is expressed in a very simple form in terms of the fields in the instantaneously accompanying frame. The Lorentz transformations of the electric and magnetic dipole moments and of the spin are derived from basic equations of classical electrodynamics. For this purpose, the Maxwell equations in matter are used and the result is confirmed by other methods. An antisymmetric four-tensor is correctly constructed from the electric and magnetic dipole moments. (article)
[en] Within the Bethe diffraction theory, the impedance of a small circular hole has been calculated for particle beams of arbitrary β and finite size via two approaches. In the first approach we define the impedance in terms of the total work done by the fields excited in the beam pipe, where it finally reduces to a surface integral over the hole region. In the second approach, the hole has been treated as a radiating electric and magnetic dipole with effective electric and magnetic moments resulting from fictitiously introduced surface charge and current densities. The above two approaches lead to exactly the same result for the hole impedance which is consistent with the predictions made by the Bethe theory for wavelengths that are much larger than the hole size. (author)
[en] The role of the blow out of the inner field in the processes of Cherenkov radiation in thin channels for toroidal dipole moments, current magnetic dipoles and magnetic dipoles consisting of two magnetic monopoles is discussed. The results of calculation of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation characteristics are obtained. They relate to channel dimensions substantially exceeding characteristic d distance from the channel surface which is affected by spatial dispersion whereas at a being much less than d the radiation can be the same as in continuous medium
[en] The dipole moments of the leptons and quarks are matrices in flavor space, which can potentially reveal as much about the flavor structure of the theory as do the mass matrices. The off-diagonal elements of the dipole matrices lead to flavor-changing decays such as μ→eγ, while the imaginary parts of the diagonal elements give rise to electric dipole moments. We analyze the scaling of the leptonic dipole moments with the lepton masses in theories beyond the standard model. While in many models the dipole moments scale roughly as lepton mass, it is shown that simple models exist in which the dipoles scale as the cube of the mass or in other ways. An explicit example with cubic scaling is presented, which is motivated on independent grounds from large angle neutrino oscillation data. Our results have great significance for the observability of the electric dipole moments de, dμ, dτ, and the rare decays μ→eγ, and τ→μγ and will be tested in several forthcoming experiments
[en] The dynamical model developed by us [Phys. Rev. C 54, 2660 (1996)] has been applied to investigate the pion electroproduction reactions on the nucleon. It is found that the model can describe to a very large extent the recent data of p(e,e'π0) reaction from Jefferson Laboratory and MIT-Bates. The extracted magnetic dipole (M1), electric dipole (E2), and Coulomb (C2) strengths of the γN→Δ transition are presented. It is found that the C2/M1 ratio drops significantly with Q2 and reaches about -14% at Q2=4 (GeV/c)2, while the E2/M1 ratio remains close to the value ∼-3% at the Q2=0 photon point. The determined M1 transition form factor drops faster than the usual dipole form factor of the proton. We also find that the nonresonant interactions can dress the γN→Δ vertex to enhance strongly its strength at low Q2, but much less at high Q2. Predictions are presented for future experimental tests. Possible developments of the model are discussed
[en] We determine the location of the expansion points with respect to which the two Maxwell's multipole vectors of the quadrupole moment and the dipole vector of a distribution of charge form an orthogonal trihedron. We find that with respect to these 'orthogonality centres' both the dipole and the quadrupole moments are each characterized by a single real parameter. We further show that the orthogonality centres coincide with the stationary points of the magnitude of the quadrupole moment and, therefore, they can be seen as an extension of the concept of centre of the dipole moment of a neutral system introduced previously in the literature. The nature of the stationary points then provides the means for the classification of a distribution of charge in two different categories
[en] Due to possessing big principal quantum number, Rydberg atom has some unique properties, for example: its radiative lifetime is long, dipole moment is large, and interaction between atoms is strong and so on. These properties make one pay attention to Rydberg atoms. In this paper we investigate the effects of Rydberg dipole-dipole interactions on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes and group velocity in three-level systems of ladder type, which provides theoretical foundation for exploring the linear and nonlinear characteristics of light in a Rydberg electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium. (paper)
[en] The origin of matter is one of the deepest questions addressed by science and remains a mystery because our understanding of the Big Bang suggests that equal amounts of matter as antimatter would be created and annihilate leaving nothing from which stars, galaxies, planets and ultimately life as we know it was created. We know this is not the case in the universe, and so the explanation that the laws of physics can distinguish the difference of moving forward and backward in time and provide mechanisms that produce more matter that antimatter so that a little bit was left over. These same laws of physics affect our world today and would very slightly change the shape of an atom, stretching is along the direction of the spin of its nucleus. This subtle shape change has been searched in many systems - the neutron, atoms and molecules, but has not yet been detected, even as the motivation is strengthened by our understanding of their structure. We therefore look to new systems that have special features that make these effects stand out. Rare isotopes provide one possibility and specific radon atoms are our choice. We have developed techniques to make these measurements with short-lived radioactive atoms, studied the nuclei to provide deeper understanding of how these affect arise in such atoms (including radium) and developed new laser-based techniques to measure and control the magnetic fields necessary to perform these exquisitely sensitive measurements. In this work we have shown that radioactive radon atoms can be produced and transported to an apparatus that lines up the spins of the atoms. We have also shown that the nuclei of nearby radium are pear shaped and that the radon nuclei likely oscillate from one pear shape to its mirror reflection. We have also used the techniques which control nuclear spin to study the magnetic environment in a magnetically shielded room, which has the smallest magnetic field in a large volume in the universe. Measuring magnetic fields and detecting noble atoms' shapes using lasers will provide new techniques for these measurements and impact a broad range of applications including measurements of the neutron EDM. Harvesting rare isotopes at the future FRIB facility at Michigan State University will provide much stronger sources of the isotopes of radon and radium for future-generation experiments and also provide new isotopes for applications including medicine.