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[en] Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The majority of patients with CKD stage 5 (CKD-5), who cannot undergo renal transplant, depend on maintenance hemodialysis by surgically created access sites. Native fistulae are preferred over grafts due to their longevity. More than half of these vital portals for dialysis access will fail over time. Screening procedures to select high-risk patients before thrombosis or stenosis appears have resulted in aggressive management. These patients are referred for angiographic evaluation and/or therapy. We present the patterns of dialysis-related interventions done in our institution
[en] The first-line treatment of a pelvic recurrence in a previously irradiated area is surgery. Unfortunately, few patients are deemed operable, often due to the location of the recurrence, usually too close to the iliac vessels, or the associated surgical morbidity. The objective of this study is to test the viability of robotic image-guided radiotherapy as an alternative treatment in inoperable cases. Sixteen patients previously treated with radiotherapy were reirradiated with CyberKnife"® for lateral pelvic lesions. Recurrences of primary rectal cancer (4 patients), anal canal (6), uterine cervix cancer (4), endometrial cancer (1), and bladder carcinoma (1) were treated. The median dose of the previous treatment was 45 Gy (EqD2 range: 20 to 96 Gy). A total dose of 36 Gy in six fractions was delivered with the CyberKnife over three weeks. The responses were evaluated according to RECIST criteria. Median follow-up was 10.6 months (1.9 to 20.5 months). The actuarial local control rate was 51.4% at one year. Median disease-free survival was 8.3 months after CyberKnife treatment. The actuarial one-year survival rate was 46%. Acute tolerance was limited to digestive grade 1 and 2 toxicities. Robotic stereotactic radiotherapy can offer a short and well-tolerated treatment for lateral pelvic recurrences in previously irradiated areas in patients otherwise not treatable. Efficacy and toxicity need to be evaluated over the long term, but initial results are encouraging
[en] To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the combined photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) and bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) in high-risk symptomatic patients with large prostates. Between January 2007 and January 2010, a prospective study was performed in Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, China. One hundred and one patients presenting with various kinds of systematic diseases, and with an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or greater underwent PVP plus bipolar TURP for severe lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia with prostatic volume greater than 80 ml. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and quality-of-life questionnaire (IPPS-QoL), maximum flow rates (Qmax), postvoid urine residues (PVR), and MRI prostatic volumes were recorded. Perioperative data, functional outcome, and complications were evaluated. Patients were reassessed at 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean operation time was 68.5 +/- 23.9 minutes. The mean pre- and post- operative prostate volumes were 102.2+/-33.1 ml and 40.4+/-15.6 ml. No severe complications were observed. Significant differences in IPSS, Qmax, and PVR values were recorded within the follow-up period. The results of our study show that PVP plus bipolar TURP have an excellent efficiency and low morbidity in high-risk patients with large prostates (Author).
[en] Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990–2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985–2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia
Purpose of ReviewTo review the current evidence supporting the use of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (LVO).
Recent FindingsRecent advances in AIS management by EVT have led to significant reduction in morbidity and mortality in selected patients with LVO within the anterior circulation. Until recently, use of EVT was strictly based on time criteria, within 4.5 to 12 h of symptom onset with many patients presenting with “wake-up” stroke who were not considered for EVT. The positive results of the DAWN and DEFUSE-3 trials have shown benefit in extending the therapeutic window for EVT to 24 and 16 h, respectively, after last known normal (LKN) time in the setting of large ischemic penumbra. These trials represent a paradigm shift in contemporary treatment of AIS, changing from a purely time-based decision to treat to an individualized decision based on clinical and radiographic findings of salvageable tissue.
SummaryOverall, acute stroke management has evolved considerably over the years from intravenous thrombolysis to include EVT, with paralleled improvements in patient selection and thrombectomy devices. Since the results of the DAWN and DEFUSE-3, EVT is now considered the standard of care in select patients with anterior circulation LVO up to 24 h from LKN time. Despite these developments, post-stroke disability remains pervasive and further studies are warranted in establishing the role of EVT in posterior circulation and distal vessel occlusions, with need for development of new and effective techniques for revascularization of small vessels.
[en] There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).
[en] Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Five-year survival of pancreatic cancer after pancreatectomy is very low, and surgical resection is the only option to cure this dismal disease. The standard surgical procedure is pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic head cancer. The morbidity and especially the mortality of PD have been greatly reduced. Portal vein resection in pancreatic cancer surgery is one attempt to increase resectability and radicality, and the procedure has become safe to perform. Clinicohistopathological studies have shown that the most important indication for portal vein resection in patients with pancreatic cancer is the ability to obtain cancer-free surgical margins. Otherwise, portal vein resection is contraindicated
[en] Purpose: Increasing interest in the Quality of Life outcomes in cancer patients led to increase implementation of their use in routine clinical practice. The aim of this systemic review is to review the scientific evidence behind recommending the use of quality of life (QoL) scales routinely in outpatient evaluation. Methods: Systematic review for all published randomized controlled trials in English language between January 1, 1990 till December 31, 2012. Out of 487 articles (476 identified by electronic search + 11 articles identified by manual search), six trials satisfied the eligibility criteria: (1) the study was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with randomization of patients or health care providers; (2) the findings of the administered questionnaire or scale (the intervention) were given to health care provider, and compared to standard care with no questionnaire administered (the control); (3) study was conducted in outpatient oncology clinics; and (4) an outcome was measured that related to (i) QoL improvement, (ii) reduction in morbidity, (iii) reduction in stress for the patients, (iv) improvement in communication between patients and health care provider, or (v) improved patient satisfaction. Assessment for the quality of the study was done using the GRADE methodology. Results: Serious methodological issues were affecting most of the trials. Overall the evaluation of the quality of the evidence from these identified trials suggests that there is a weak recommendation to use QoL scales in routine oncology practice to improve communication between physicians and patients. Conclusion: The routine use of such tools in the outpatient settings at improving the patient outcome or satisfaction cannot be recommended based on the available evidence. The potential harm with the excess use of resources needed to implement, collect, store, analyse, and present such data to health care providers should be also considered. Further research and better designed trials is required using recent methodological techniques such as item-response theory based questionnaire and cluster randomization might help to reach an answer to this question.
[en] Ischemic heart disease (IHD) also known as coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Two-dimensional echocardiography (2D echo) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information regarding the cardiac function and hemodynamics. This paper was designed to update the reader on the fundamental principles and current applications of 2D echo imaging recommended in patients with known or suspected IHD. Also the recent advances on the prognostic and diagnostic value and the future directions of 2D echo in the evaluation of IHD will be addressed. Although the noninvasive imaging modalities for the evaluation of IHD have expanded over the last decade, 2D echo remains the most cost-effective and risk-effective imaging choice in most settings. The main drawback of echocardiography remains in the limited echogenicity of many patients and its undeniable operator dependence. However, improvement of existing well-established echocardiographic methods (2D echo, stress echocardiography, contrast echocardiography) in conjunction with the development of new emerging echocardiography methods (3D echo, tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), speckle tracking imaging) are anticipated to increase the clinical utility of echocardiography in IHD