Results 1 - 10 of 374
Results 1 - 10 of 374. Search took: 0.021 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for diversification of the Ig variable region (IgV). AID is excluded from the nucleus, where it normally functions. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating AID localization remain to be elucidated. The SR-protein splicing factor SRSF1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, a splicing isoform of which called SRSF1-3, has previously been shown to contribute to IgV diversification in chicken DT40 cells. In this study, we examined whether SRSF1-3 functions in IgV diversification by promoting nuclear localization of AID. AID expressed alone was localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. In contrast, co-expression of AID with SRSF1-3 led to the nuclear accumulation of both AID and SRSF1-3 and the formation of a protein complex that contained them both, although SRSF1-3 was dispensable for nuclear import of AID. Expression of either SRSF1-3 or a C-terminally-truncated AID mutant increased IgV diversification in DT40 cells. However, overexpression of exogenous SRSF1-3 was unable to further enhance IgV diversification in DT40 cells expressing the truncated AID mutant, although SRSF1-3 was able to form a protein complex with the AID mutant. These results suggest that SRSF1-3 promotes nuclear localization of AID probably by forming a nuclear protein complex, which might stabilize nuclear AID and induce IgV diversification in an AID C-terminus-dependent manner. - Highlights: • SRSF1-3 promotes the nuclear accumulation of AID. • SRSF1-3 forms a protein complex with AID in an AID C-terminus-independent manner. • SRSF1-3 contributes to IgV hypermutation in an AID C-terminus-dependent manner.
[en] The size and scope of various acquisitions by Precision Drilling Corporation over the last decade were examined from the point of view of the acquiror. Also examined were Precision Drilling's approach to acquisitions and the probable reasons for the Corporation's success in acquiring other companies. In a series of 15 acquisitions from 1985 to 1997, the company went from the initial three drilling rigs to 205 rigs and from $4.5 million in revenues in 1985 to $455 million in 1997. Knowing the drilling business and the customers' business, an informed assessment of the target company's long term potential, decisive action, efficient and knowledgeable negotiators able to assess what is driving the other side, and a flexible, creative approach to financing mergers, were identified as most responsible for the Corporation's success
[en] Highlights: • We study co-movement between the green bond and financial markets. • The green bond market couples with corporate and treasury bond markets. • The green bond market weakly co-moves with stock and energy commodity markets. • Diversification benefits of green bonds are sizeable for stock and energy markets. • Green bonds are affected by price spillovers from fixed-income markets. - Abstract: We examine co-movement between the green bond and financial markets, finding that the green bond market couples with corporate and treasury bond markets and weakly co-moves with stock and energy commodity markets. We also find that green bonds have negligible diversification benefits for investors in corporate and treasury markets, whereas diversification benefits are sizeable for investors in stock and energy markets. We further confirm that green bonds are affected by substantial price spillovers from corporate and treasury fixed-income markets and that large price swings in stock and energy markets have a negligible impact on green bond prices.
[en] The objective of this paper is to address some of the strategies necessary to effect a successful asset or corporate acquisition. Understanding the corporate objective, the full potential of the asset, the specific strategies to be employed, the value of time, and most importantly the interaction of all these are crucial, for missed steps are likely to result in missed opportunities. The amount of factual information that can be obtained and utilized in a timely fashion is the largest single hurdle to the capture of value in the asset or corporate acquisition. Fact, familiarity and experience are key in this context. The importance of the due diligence process prior to title or data transfer cannot be overemphasized. Some of the most important assets acquired in a merger may be the people. To maximize effectiveness, it is essential to merge both existing staff and those that came with the new acquisition as soon as possible. By thinking together as a unit, knowledge and experience can be applied to realize the potential of the asset. Hence team building is one of the challenges, doing it quickly is usually the most effective. Developing new directions for the new enlarged company by combining the strengths of the old and the new creates more value, as well as a more efficient operation. Equally important to maximizing the potential of the new acquisition is the maintenance of the momentum generated by the need to grow that gave the impetus to acquiring new assets in the first place. In brief, the right mix of vision, facts and perceptions, quick enactment of the post-close strategies and keeping the momentum alive, are the principal ingredients of a focused strategy
[en] Aim of study: To review and provide all-purpose information about wild mushrooms in Ethiopia and to create awareness for conservation and use of mycological resources. Area of study: We focused mainly on Ethiopia, where information about wild mushrooms is scanty and their status is unknown under the rampant degradation of the habitats. Main results: We reviewed all relevant references related to wild mushrooms and their ecological niches, cultural practices and species used for cultivation as well as the anthropogenic factors affecting the conservation of fungal diversity. Research highlights: This review summarizes issues related to the diversity of wild mushrooms, the main ecological niches and their associated fungal species, and mushroom cultivation practices in Ethiopia. Moreover, threats and the need for future conservation of wild mushrooms in the country are also reported. This review paper can serve as base line information and indicator for further mycological studies in Ethiopia as well as in other developing countries with similar scenarios.
[en] Herbivorous insects are remarkably species-diverse, and the cause of such diversity remains a classical issue in the fields of ecology and evolution. The traditional explanation for the huge diversity of such insects is that repeated dietary changes over evolutionary time provided opportunities for speciation, thereby enhancing the diversification rate. A different view suggests that herbivore diversity became saturated over time, with factors affecting the points of dynamic equilibrium of species diversity within each lineage (and thus associated with maintenance of species diversity) being the determinants of the diversity evident today. Thus, both generation and maintenance processes, and their relative importance, are critical for understanding the diversity of herbivorous insects. Furthermore, the neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography has recently gained attention as an alternative explanation for the generation and maintenance of diversity, as opposed to adaptive processes centred around host specificity. However, these possible routes toward herbivore diversity have rarely been evaluated in parallel, and the work of various groups has become both segmentalised and complicated, compromising any comprehensive understanding of the issue. Thus, in the present paper, I briefly review our knowledge of herbivore diversity and the major relevant studies. The aim was to share knowledge, creating a common starting point from which future discussions among researchers may be generated. It may be that no single approach can resolve the many remaining questions on herbivore diversity. However, an improved understanding of such diversity can be achieved by combining knowledge gained in studies of both the generation and maintenance of diversity.
[en] Successful mergers in the context of long-term value creation, as measured by return realized on investor-provided capital, were discussed. In essence, a successful merger is characterized by being motivated by a sound business reason and strategy for the merger, a reasonable price and sound execution. The acquiror's pre-merger success in managing a company is a good indicator of future success. Poorly managed companies that acquire other companies generally continue to be poorly managed with no significant increase in shareholder value. Prior to the acquisition, identification of the potential target, assessment of the people involved on both sides of the transaction, thorough knowledge of the target's potential for value creation, financial implications (debt, equity, terms and demand, tax implications, the potential effect of the proposed acquisition on the acquiror's business plan) and finally the execution of the process itself, are the important determinants of successful mergers
[en] Factors that have a bearing on determining whether a particular merger created shareholder value were examined with the caveat that since there are a large number of factors that impact upon stock prices, it is not possible to attribute any one factor as the most significant determinant responsible for the current price of a stock. Cash flow is perhaps the most important measure of growth, however, per share growth is increasingly being recognized as important, particularly on the international scene. Mergers can also be rated by what was paid in dollars for every barrel of oil equivalent in reserves. Another indicator of value may be the price to cash flow comparison of each company involved in the transaction. Expensive paper of a company trading at a higher price/cash flow multiple exchanged for the assets of the cheaper paper of a company trading at a lower price/cash flow multiple will, in general, receive a higher multiple than it had before. This is especially true if the purchase includes good, growing assets, preferably complementary to the acquiring company's current holdings. The likelihood of success is also increased by the absence of personnel conflict, especially at the top. All of these indicators are useful, but no substitutes for caution and prudence in today's industry environment
[en] In a hostile takeover, the executives of the acquired company are likely to have strong feelings that they may be unwanted by and considered disloyal to the the new company. They are likely to be filled with a sense that the 'new company' will 'get even with them' for the resistance put up to the merger. Therefore, the new company must be conscious of and sensitive to the fact that a strained environment exists and one of its first priorities should be to reduce that strain. Experience shows that a well informed Transition Team can minimize the emotional impacts of a hostile takeover and contribute significantly to the eventual success of the merger. To assure success, the Transition Team should be appointed early in the negotiating phase. It should have ready access to the negotiating team and the CEO to keep them fully informed of risk management issues caused by human resource. It should be involved in the strategic planning process during the pre-merger stage. It should have major responsibility for developing human resource impact studies, the development of organizational structure, the integration and implementation planning and monitoring of the progress of implementation. A list of Transition Team responsibilities and a list of proven techniques for turning a hostile environment into a productive win/win team environment are also included
[en] This paper draws on evidence from the last two centuries of industrialisation, analysing the evolution of energy intensity over the long- and short-run. We argue that the increased specialisation of the fuel mix, coupled with accelerating convergence of both the sectoral and technological composition of economies, will continue to improve energy intensity of economic output and to reduce the reliance on any single energy resource. This analysis suggests that even high growth in per capita income over the next 20 years need not be constrained by resource availability. - Highlights: ► Analyses the evolution of energy intensity over two centuries of industrialisation. ► Increased specialisation of the fuel mix and convergence of economies continues to improve energy efficiency. ► Growth in per capita income over the next 20 years need not be constrained by resource availability.