Results 1 - 10 of 2017
Results 1 - 10 of 2017. Search took: 0.022 seconds
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[en] Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has a small genome but shares many physiological functions with higher eukaryotes, is a useful single-cell, model eukaryotic organism. In particular, many features concerning chromatin structure and dynamics, including heterochromatin, centromeres, telomeres, and DNA replication origins, are well conserved between S. pombe and higher eukaryotes. However, the S. pombe nucleosome, the fundamental structural unit of chromatin, has not been reconstituted in vitro. In the present study, we established the method to purify S. pombe histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, and successfully reconstituted the S. pombe nucleosome in vitro. Our thermal stability assay and micrococcal nuclease treatment assay revealed that the S. pombe nucleosome is markedly unstable and its DNA ends are quite accessible, as compared to the canonical human nucleosome. These findings are important to understand the mechanisms of epigenetic genomic DNA regulation in fission yeast. - Highlights: • S. pombe histones were purified as recombinant proteins. • The recombinant S. pombe histones efficiently form nucleosomes in vitro. • The S. pombe nucleosome has distinct stability and DNA dynamics.
[en] Interaction between the adenoassociated virus (AAV) replication proteins, Rep68 and 78, and the viral terminal repeats (TRs) is mediated by a DNA sequence termed the Rep-binding element (RBE). This element is necessary for Rep-mediated unwinding of duplex DNA substrates, directs Rep catalyzed cleavage of the AAV origin of DNA replication, and is required for viral transcription and proviral integration. Six discrete Rep complexes with the AAV TR substrates have been observed in vitro, and cross-linking studies suggest these complexes contain one to six molecules of Rep. However, the functional relationship between Rep oligomerization and biochemical activity is unclear. Here we have characterized Rep complexes that form on the AAV TR. Both Rep68 and Rep78 appear to form the same six complexes with the AAV TR, and ATP seems to stimulate formation of specific, higher order complexes. When the sizes of these Rep complexes were estimated on native polyacrylamide gels, the four slower migrating complexes were larger than predicted by an amount equivalent to one or two TRs. To resolve this discrepancy, the molar ratio of protein and DNA was calculated for the three largest complexes. Data from these experiments indicated that the larger complexes included multiple TRs in addition to multiple Rep molecules and that the Rep-to-TR ratio was approximately 2. The two largest complexes were also associated with increased Rep-mediated, origin cleavage activity. Finally, we characterized a second, Rep-mediated cleavage event that occurs adjacent to the normal nicking site, but on the opposite strand. This second site nicking event effectively results in double-stranded DNA cleavage at the normal nicking site
[en] During porcine circovirus (PCV) replication in PK15 cells, nine PCV type 2 (PCV2)-specific RNAs are synthesized. They include the capsid RNA (CR), five Rep-associated RNAs (Rep, Rep', Rep3a, Rep3b, and Rep3c), and three NS-associated RNAs (NS515, NS672, and NS0). In this work, mutational analyses were conducted to investigate the involvement of each PCV2 transcription unit in viral protein synthesis and DNA replication. The results demonstrated that a stop codon introduced at the very 5'-end of CR did not affect Rep-associated antigens or viral DNA synthesis. Altering the consensus dinucleotides at the splice junctions of the minor RNAs (Rep3a, Rep3b, Rep3c, NS515, and NS672) or introducing a stop codon in the abundant NS0 RNA also did not have any effect on viral protein synthesis or DNA replication. However, mutations that resulted in truncated Rep or Rep' proteins caused greater than 99% reduction of viral protein synthesis and complete shut down of viral DNA replication. These results demonstrated that both Rep and Rep' are absolutely essential for PCV2 replication
[en] This study examined the cytotoxicity of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) by investigating physiological responses of Escherichia coli, from cell growth to protein expression. Surfaces of HNTs were modified by amine functionalization (NH2-HNTs) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) coating and their cytotoxicity levels were compared with that of non-modified HNTs (Bare-HNTs). Bare- and NH2-HNTs exhibited accelerated cell death rates at ≥0.5 mg/ml of HNTs. It was also found that concentration as low as 0.01 mg/ml of HNTs exerted significant toxic effects on the bacterial cells. Cellular viability, metabolic activity, and DNA replication all decreased with increasing concentrations of Bare- and NH2-HNTs. In contrast, 0.01 mg/ml of BSA-coated HNTs (BSA-HNTs) coated showed no evidence of cytotoxicity. Even at concentrations ≤0.1 mg/ml, the cytocompatibility of BSA-HNTs was significantly better than those of Bare- and NH2-HNTs, which was confirmed by the observation of (i) the same or similar levels of cell proliferation and cell viability to the control, and (ii) higher levels of metabolic activity and plasmid DNA replication than those of Bare- and NH2-HNTs. In addition, higher ranaspumin-2 protein yield was observed from bacterial culture supplemented with BSA-HNTs (100, 83, and 80 % of yield at 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/ml, respectively, relative to the control). This work showed that the increase of bacterial cytotoxicity of HNTs correlated well with elevating HNT concentration and that surface modification of HNTs with amine functional group and BSA coating was an effective strategy to reduce cytotoxicity up to 0.1 mg/ml of HNTs
[en] The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein, EBNA1, activates the replication of latent EBV episomes and the transcription of EBV latency genes by binding to recognition sites in the DS and FR elements of oriP. Since EBV episomes exist as chromatin, we have examined the interaction of EBNA1 with oriP templates assembled with physiologically spaced nucleosomes. We show that EBNA1 retains the ability to efficiently bind its recognition sites within the DS and FR elements in oriP chromatin and that this property is intrinsic to the EBNA1 DNA binding domain. The efficient assembly of EBNA1 on oriP chromatin does not require ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors and does not cause the precise positioning of nucleosomes within or adjacent to the FR and DS elements. Thus EBNA1 belongs to a select group of proteins that can efficiently access their recognition sites within nucleosomes without the need for additional chromatin remodeling factors
[en] Sequence-dependent DNA flexibility is an important structural property originating from the DNA 3D structure. In this paper, we investigate the DNA flexibility of the budding yeast (S. Cerevisiae) replication origins on a genome-wide scale using flexibility parameters from two different models, the trinucleotide and the tetranucleotide models. Based on analyzing average flexibility profiles of 270 replication origins, we find that yeast replication origins are significantly rigid compared with their surrounding genomic regions. To further understand the highly distinctive property of replication origins, we compare the flexibility patterns between yeast replication origins and promoters, and find that they both contain significantly rigid DNAs. Our results suggest that DNA flexibility is an important factor that helps proteins recognize and bind the target sites in order to initiate DNA replication. Inspired by the role of the rigid region in promoters, we speculate that the rigid replication origins may facilitate binding of proteins, including the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6, Cdt1 and the MCM2-7 complex
[en] Highlights: • Mitochondria and mtDNA are heterogeneous under many aspects. • MtDNA replication requires mitochondrial and nuclear factors. • Threats to mtDNA replication arise from the structure/organization of this genome. • Sub-optimal mtDNA replication is associated with disease. • The mtDNA content is not necessarily associated to the mitochondrial mass. - Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is essential for mitochondrial and cell function, is replicated and transcribed in the organelle by proteins that are entirely coded in the nucleus. Replication of mtDNA is challenged not only by threats related to the replication machinery and orchestration of DNA synthesis, but also by factors linked to the peculiarity of this genome. Indeed the architecture, organization, copy number, and location of mtDNA, which are markedly distinct from the nuclear genome, require ad hoc and complex regulation to ensure coordinated replication. As a consequence sub-optimal mtDNA replication, which results from compromised regulation of these factors, is generally associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and disease. Mitochondrial DNA replication should be considered in the context of the organelle and the whole cell, and not just a single genome or a single replication event. Major threats to mtDNA replication are linked to its dependence on both mitochondrial and nuclear factors, which require exquisite coordination of these crucial subcellular compartments. Moreover, regulation of replication events deals with a dynamic population of multiple mtDNA molecules rather than with a fixed number of genome copies, as it is the case for nuclear DNA. Importantly, the mechanistic aspects of mtDNA replication are still debated. We describe here major challenges for human mtDNA replication, the mechanistic aspects of the process that are to a large extent original, and their consequences on disease.