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[en] Dopamine transporter imaging is useful in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and the most successful technique in the clinical use of neuroreceptor imaging. Recently, several radiopharmaceuticals including I-123 FP-CIT, Tc-99m TRODAT, and F-18 FP-CIT for dopamine transporter imaging have been approved for the routine clinical use in several European countries, Taiwan and Korea, respectively. This review summarized the practical issue for the routine clinical examination of dopamine transporter imaging
[en] A simple, fast and low-cost method for dopamine (DA) detection based on turn-on fluorescence using resorcinol is developed. The rapid reaction between resorcinol and DA allows the detection to be performed within 5 min, and the reaction product (azamonardine) with high quantum yield generates strong fluorescence signal for sensitive optical detection. The detection exhibits a high sensitivity to DA with a wide linear range of 10 nM–20 μM and the limit of detection is estimated to be 1.8 nM (S/N = 3). This approach has been successfully applied to determine DA concentrations in human urine samples with satisfactory quantitative recovery of 97.84%–103.50%, which shows great potential in clinical diagnosis. - Highlights: • A turn-on fluorescence technique is developed for dopamine detection by using one-step selective reaction between resorcinol and dopamine. • The limit of detection is 1.8 nM (S/N = 3). • This detection could be completed within 5 min. • The method has been demonstrated to successfully detect dopamine in human urine samples with high recovery ratio of 97.84%–103.50%.
[en] To elucidate the dopaminergic control of T.S.H. secretion, we analyzed the pattern of T.S.H secretion in seven normal controls and nine primary hypothyroid subjects, before and after single or combined administration of specific dopaminergic receptor blocker, metoclopramide, and specific dopaminergic receptor stimulant, bromergocryptine (CB-154). The results obtained were as follows: 1) There was a significant rise in T.S.H. levels after intravenous injection of metocioramide (10 mg) in hypothyroid subjects. But there was no significant rise in T.S.H. levels in normal controls. The T.S.H. response to metoclopramide varied considerably, being large in mild cases and small in severely hypothyroid subjects. 2) There was a significant fall in T.S.H. levels after oral administration of bromergocryptine (2 mg) in hypothyroid subjects, but there was no significant fall in T.S.H. levels in normal controls. 3) There was no significant fluctuation in T.S.H. levels after combined administration of both metoclopramide and bromergocrytine. 4) There was no significant fluctuation in T.S.H. levels after intravenous injection of normal saline (2 ml) in both hypothyroid and normal subjects. 5) There was no significant change in serum T3 and T4 after administration of metoclopramide and bromergocryptine respectively and serially. These data support the fact that there is a dopaminergic control in the secretion of T.S.H. in the human.
[en] Meningiomas are common, usually benign tumors, with a high postoperative recurrence rate. However, the genesis and development of these tumors remain controversial. We aimed to investigate the presence and implications of a mutated p53 protein and dopamine D_2 receptor in a representative series of meningiomas and to correlate these findings with age, gender, tumor grade, and recurrence. Tumor tissue samples of 157 patients diagnosed with meningioma (37 males and 120 females, mean age 53.6±14.3 years) who underwent surgical resection between 2003 and 2012 at our institution were immunohistochemically evaluated for the presence of p53 protein and dopamine D_2 receptor and were followed-up to analyze tumor recurrence or regrowth. Tumors were classified as grades I (n=141, 89.8%), II (n=13, 8.3%), or grade III (n=3, 1.9%). Dopamine D_2 receptor and p53 protein expression were positive in 93.6% and 49.7% of the cases, respectively. Neither of the markers showed significant expression differences among different tumor grades or recurrence or regrowth statuses. Our findings highlight the potential role of p53 protein in meningioma development and/or progression. The high positivity of dopamine D_2 receptor observed in this study warrants further investigation of the therapeutic potential of dopamine agonists in the evolution of meningiomas
[en] Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and 18FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic inhibition may help identify potential benefits of this medication in cocaine addiction.
[en] Mesoporous CuO was successfully synthesized via thermal decomposition of CuC2O4 precursors. These products had ring-like morphology, which was made up of nanoparticles with the average diameter of 40 nm. The electrochemical experiments showed that the mesoporous CuO decreased the overvoltage of the electrode and increased electron transference in the measurement of dopamine.
[en] We have previously found that MK-801, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral sensitization to nicotine. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MK-801 on a neurochemical component of nicotine sensitization by evaluating the effect of the drug on nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) release. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30 min before injection of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, s.c., once daily) for 7 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last drug injection, animals were challenged with local perfusion of 5 mM nicotine into the shell of nucleus accumbens and DA release was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. In rats pretreated with chronic nicotine, local nicotine challenge induced a greater increase of accumbal DA release than in saline-treated animals (maximal DA response 969 ± 235% (mean ± SEM) of basal level vs. 520 ± 93%, P < 0.05). Co-administration of MK-801 with nicotine attenuated an increase of DA release elicited by local nicotine challenge, compared with nicotine alone (maximal DA response 427 ± 83% of basal level vs. 969 ± 235%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that MK-801 blocks the development of nicotine sensitization of nucleus accumbens DA release, further supporting the involvement of NMDA receptors in the development of behavioral sensitization to nicotine
[en] Scintigraphic exploration of dopamine transporters was largely widespread in recent years. To optimize the dosimetry of this examination, we wanted to determine how the injected activity could be reduced without compromising the quality of the visual and semi-quantitative interpretation. It appears that the three fourth or half of recommended activity does not change significantly the diagnosis but increases the number of doubtful cases. At the fourth of reference activity, it exist an important risk of diagnosis change. (N.C.)
[en] A highly sensitive electrochemical detection method for dopamine (DA) has been developed by relying on a multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT)-sol-gel titania-Nafion composite film modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The CNT-titania-Nafion/GC electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards DA. Therefore, the CNT-titania- Nafion/GC electrode showed improved voltammetric and amperometric responses for DA compared to those obtained with both titania-Nafion/GC and Nafion/GC electrodes. The CNT-titania-Nafion/GC electrode gave a linear response (R"2 = 0.999) for DA from 0.5 μM to 0.5 mM with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.1 μM and a good sensitivity of 150 mA/M while other electrodes such as CNT-Nafion/GC, titania-Nafion/GC, and a bare GC gave a sensitivity of 89, 39, and 36 mA/M, respectively. Besides, the CNT-titania-Nafion/GC electrode displayed very fast response time within 2 s. The modified electrode showed good selectivity against ascorbic acid. The modified electrode showed good stability and reproducibility. The CNT-titania-Nafion/GC electrode was applied to the determination of DA in urine and serum samples