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[en] To study Saudi patients' perception of nursing care delivered by non-Arabic speaking nurses (NASNs). A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected patients admitted to King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the summer of 2009. We conducted structured face-to-face interviews, and the Institutional Review Board approved the study. 47% were men. Half was illiterate or had a low level of education. Eighty percent was served by NASNs. Most believed that the Arabic language is important to provide high quality of care. Two thirds reported difficulties in understanding nursing instructions, and felt that NASNs could not understand their concerns on many occasions. Half believed that NASNs are more susceptible to error. Seventy percent felt uncomfortable dealing with a nurse who cannot communicate in the same language, and 30% question the reliability of information delivered by NASNs. Patients noticed that NASN avoid (50%) or end conversation (70%) due to language barriers. Sixty-one percent reported that NASNs never or rarely called the interpreter. Overall satisfaction of nursing care was high (90%), with no significant difference between patients who were served by Arabic versus NASNs. Our patients were concerned about the language barrier during nursing care delivery. It may lead to miscommunication and compromise the patient-nurse relationship. Further exploration of this issue (Author).
[en] Relation between doses and effects are considered. Non-stochastic and stochastic effects are distinguished. The concepts dose equivalent, collective dose and dose commitment are outlined. (G.Q.)
[en] The conference attracts approximately 500 scientists researching in the area of non-linear low dose effects. These scientists represent a wide range of biological/medical fields and technical disciplines. Observations that biphasic dose responses are frequently reported in each of these areas but that the recognition of similar dose response relationships across disciplines is very rarely appreciated and exploited. By bringing scientist of such diverse backgrounds together who are working on the common area of non-linear dose response relationships this will enhance our understanding of the occurrence, origin, mechanism, significance and practical applications of such dose response relationships
[en] The importance of nicotinamide dose on inducing blood pressure changes in mice and humans was investigated. Blood pressure measurements in human volunteers were made using an inflated cuff procedure after oral ingestion of 3 or 6 g nicotinamide. Animal blood pressure measurements were performed in fully awake nonanesthetized female CDF1 mice, 24 h after cannulation of the carotid artery. In humans, the average (± 1 SE) resting systolic and diastolic pressures were 122.8 mmHg (± 2.5) and 80.6 mmHg (± 2.1), respectively. They were unchanged during the first 3 h after ingestion of either 3 g or 6 g nicotinamide. The resting value (± 1 SE) in mice was 115.1 mmHg (± 4.0) and this was significantly reduced following intraperitoneal injection of 400-1000 mg/kg nicotinamide. This decrease was maximal within 15-30 min after injection and was linearly dependent on drug dose. At doses of 200 mg/kg or less, no significant effect on blood pressure was observed. Doses between 100-200 mg/kg in mice are known to be equivalent to 6 g in man and can also produce maximal radiosensitization in murine tumors. The results, therefore, not only show that the mouse and human data are entirely consistent, but also suggest that nicotinamide-induced decreases in blood pressure are not necessary for radiosensitization. 29 refs., 3 figs