Results 1 - 10 of 1809
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[en] Most detected planet-bearing binaries are in wide orbits, for which a high inclination, iB , between the binary orbital plane and the plane of the planetary disk around the primary is likely to be common. In this paper, we investigate the intermediate stages-from planetesimals to planetary embryos/cores-of planet formation in such highly inclined cases. Our focus is on the effects of gas drag on the planetesimals' orbital evolution, in particular on the evolution of the planetesimals' semimajor axis distribution and their mutual relative velocities. We first demonstrate that a non-evolving axisymmetric disk model is a good approximation for studying the effects of gas drag on a planetesimal in the highly inclined case (30 deg. < iB < 150 deg.). We then find that gas drag plays a crucial role, and the results can be generally divided into two categories, i.e., the Kozai-on regime and the Kozai-off regime, depending on the specific value of iB . For both regimes, a robust outcome over a wide range of parameters is that planetesimals migrate/jump inward and pile up, leading to a severely truncated and dense planetesimal disk around the primary. In this compact and dense disk, collision rates are high but relative velocities are low, providing conditions that are favorable for planetesimal growth and potentially allow for the subsequent formation of planets.
[en] The prediction of the total drag experienced by an advancing ship is a complicated problem which requires a thorough understanding of the hydrodynamic forces acting on the hull, the physical processes from which these forces arise as well as their mutual interaction. A general numerical method to predict the hydrodynamic performance of a twin-propeller combatant ship is presented in the paper, which describes the solution of a RANS solver coupled with a body force method as an attempt in investigating the flow features around the ship hull equipped with rotating propellers and rudders. A special focus is made on the propeller non-symmetrical inflow field, aimed at obtaining the necessary data for the propulsive performances evaluation as well as for the propeller final design. The reported work allows not only the performance evaluation for the overall performances of a hull, but also leads to the development, implementation and validation of new concepts in modeling the turbulent vortical flows, with direct connection to the ship propulsion problem.
[en] I use a representation theorem of continuum mechanics, along with a systematic approximation, to establish an exact correspondence between the momentum interaction on the solid constituent in a multiphase flow, and the Stokes drag, the Faxen force, the Saffman lift, and the Ho and Leal lift on a particle in a viscous fluid
[en] Solutions of the anelastic pressure equation are studied, with a perturbative scheme, for certain assumed and idealized forcing distributions. Previous results, obtained in the Boussinesq approximation and the new ones are compared for the case of deep cumulus convection. Meaningful differences are found in the upper and lower parts of the cloud between the new and the previous estimate of vertical pressure gradient force induced by buoyancy forcing and by drag forcing in the case of a nonprecipitating cloud
[en] The electric and the positive- and negative-ion drag forces on a dust grain in an electronegative complex plasma are investigated. It is shown that the number of locations where the drag forces balance the electric force is considerably larger than that in an electropositive plasma. The balance occurs in the so-called oscillation regime where the electric field oscillates in space. The effect of the negative-ion drag force on the dust grain can be substantial in a certain parameter range
[en] On the basis of deterministic fractals and the Rotne-Prager hydrodynamic interaction tensor, we confirm the asymptotic as well as the finite size scaling of the friction coefficient λ of a self-similar structure. The fractal assembly is made of N spheres with its dimension varying from D<1 to D=3 . The number of spheres can be as high as N∼O(104) . The asymptotic scaling behavior of the friction coefficient per sphere is λ∼N1/D-1 for D>1 , λ∼(ln< hspace SPACE=''-0.167''>N)-1 for D=1 , and λ∼N0 for D<1 . The crossover behavior indicates that while in the regime of D>1 the hydrodynamic screening effect grows with the size, for D<1 it is limited in a finite range, which decays with decreasing D
[en] Past results have suggested that the drag coefficient and the shedding frequencies of regular polygon plates all fall within a very narrow band of values. In this study, we introduce a variety of length scales into the perimeter of a square plate and study the effects this has on the wake characteristics and overall drag. The perimeter of the plate can be made as long as allowed by practical constraints with as many length scales as desired under these constraints without changing the area of the plate. A total of eight fractal-perimeter plates were developed, split into two families of different fractal dimensions all of which had the same frontal area. It is found that by increasing the number of fractal iterations and thus the perimeter, the drag coefficient increases by up to 7%. For the family of fractal plates with the higher dimension, it is also found that when the perimeter increases above a certain threshold the drag coefficient drops back again. Furthermore, the shedding frequency remains the same but the intensity of the shedding decreases with increasing fractal dimension. The size of the wake also decreases with increasing fractal dimension and has some dependence on iteration without changing the area of the plate. (paper)
[en] The flight trajectory of a water rocket can be reasonably calculated if the magnitude of the drag coefficient is known. The experimental determination of this coefficient with enough precision is usually quite difficult, but in this paper we propose a simple free-fall experiment for undergraduate students to reasonably estimate the drag coefficient of water rockets made from plastic soft drink bottles. The experiment is performed using relatively small fall distances (only about 14 m) in addition with a simple digital-sound-recording device. The fall time is inferred from the recorded signal with quite good precision, and it is subsequently introduced as an input of a Matlab (registered) program that estimates the magnitude of the drag coefficient. This procedure was tested first with a toy ball, obtaining a result with a deviation from the typical sphere value of only about 3%. For the particular water rocket used in the present investigation, a drag coefficient of 0.345 was estimated.