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[en] The present work is probably the first report on cancer chemopreventive potential of Triphala, a combination of fruit powder of three different plants namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala is a popular formulation of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Our findings have shown that Triphala in diet has significantly reduced the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. In the short term treatment groups, the tumor incidences were lowered to 77.77% by both doses of Triphala mixed diet. In the case of long-term treatment the tumor incidences were reduced to 66.66% and 62.50% respectively by 2.5% and 5% triphala containing diet. Tumor burden was 7.27±1.16 in the B(a)P treated control group, whereas it reduced to 3.00±0.82 (p<0.005) by 2.5% dose and 2.33 +/- 1.03 (p<0.001) by 5% dose of Triphala. In long-term studies the tumor burden was reduced to 2.17±0.75 (p<0.001) and 2.00±0.71 (p<0.001) by 2.5% and 5% diet of Triphala, respectively. It was important to observe that Triphala was more effective in reducing tumor incidences compared to its individual constituents. Triphala also significantly increased the antioxidant status of animals which might have contributed to the chemoprevention. It was inferred that the concomitant use of multiple agents seemed to have a high degree of chemoprevention potential
[en] To assess the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria causing infections in patients at the intensive care units (ICUs) of Riyadh Military Hospital (RMH), as well as their antimicrobial resistance patterns for one year. A retrospective, cohort investigation was performed. Laboratory records from January to December 2009 were studied for the prevalence of MDR Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance in ICU patients from RMH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1210 isolates were collected from various specimens such as: respiratory (469), blood (400), wound/tissue (235), urinary (56), nasal swabs (35), and cerebro-spinal fluid (15). Regardless of the specimen, there was a high rate of nosocomial MDR organisms isolated from patients enrolled in the General ICU (GICU) in Riyadh. Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) comprised 40.9%, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) - 19.4%, while Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) formed 16.3% of these isolates. The P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus (methycillin sensitive and methycillin resistant), and Staphylococccus coagulase negative are the most common isolates recovered from clinical specimens in the GICU of RMH. Respiratory tract specimens represented nearly 39% of all the specimens collected in the ICU. The most common MDR organisms isolated in this unit were A. baumannii, and K. pneumoniae (Author).
[en] Water from the dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) is known to contaminate with microbial from the biofilm that formed in the tubing system. The water quality from DUWLs is important to patients and dental health care professionals as they could be infected either directly from the contaminated water or aerosol that is generated during dental procedures. Suppliers claimed that dental units supplied to the hospital can only use a specific disinfectant which is uneconomic compared with the others. The aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the efficacy of different disinfectant on the water quality of DUWLs. Four disinfectants (Calbenium, A-dec ICX tablet, Dentel 5, Metassys) and distil water were evaluated. 350 mL water sample was collected separately, from the outlet of high-speed hand piece, scaler, 3-ways syringe and cup filler into a sterile thiosulfate bag on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th and 24th weeks of the study. The samples were tested on the following day for total viable count (TVC). There is significant difference in the efficacies of the different disinfectants. Only one disinfectant consistently produces water quality within the recommended level of American Dental Association (ADA). Within the limitation of this study, it was found that there is alternative disinfectant that can reduce the TVC to the level recommended by ADA. However, the water qualities produced with these disinfectants were not consistent although they did not cause any technical problem to the dental units during the period of study. (author)
[en] Highlights: • The synthetic method of [Zn3(BTC)2] using electro- and sonochmistry was compared. • Drug delivery application by employing ibuprofen as drug model was studied. • The sonochemical method (for 30 min) tends to produce nanoscale [Zn3(BTC)2]. • Over 24 h ibuprofen loaded over nano [Zn3(BTC)2] has average release ca. 25.74%. • Unloaded ibuprofen has a faster release ability ca. 85.88% over 24 h.
[en] Illicit drug abuse is a continuing menace of epidemic proportions associated with serious medical and social problems. Drug abuse can have a wide variety of presentations some of which can be life-threatening. The clinical diagnosis can be challenging as the history is usually limited or absent. Radiologists need to be familiar with varied imaging presentations and the related complications of illicit drug abuse to ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate timely treatment. This review will illustrate the imaging spectrum of illicit drug abuse involving several organ systems and also discuss the pathophysiological consequences of drug abuse.
[en] A bioassay guided fractionation of Ganiothalamus scortechinii yielded compounds with promising anti-malarial activity. When subjected to the lactate dehydrogenase calanone, goniothalamine, goniothalenol and pinocembrine, the showed an improved schizonticidal activity with the chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum, compared to the crude extract of G. scortechinii; whilst only goniothalamine and goniothalanol were active with the resistant strain (Gombak A). The cytotoxicity of each compound were then assessed with the MTT test using MDBK cells. Out of the four compounds only calanone exhibited a safe therapeutic margin, whilst the others are found to be toxic against the cells used. In the attempt to characterise its anti-malarial activity the beta haematin (BH) inhibitory activity of the compounds were determined using the Haematin Polymerisation Inhibitory Assay (HPIA) and the Beta Haematin Inhibitory Assay (BHIA). For each, a better inhibition was observed in the HPIA. However from the low inhibitory values obtained it can be concluded that the inhibition of BH formation is not how the compounds exert their antimalarial activity. (Author)
[en] In the last few years mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have gained the attention of the nanomedicine research community, especially for the potential treatment of cancer. Although this topic has been reviewed before, periodic updates on such a hot topic are necessary due to the dynamic character of this field. The reasons that make MSNs so attractive for designing controlled drug delivery systems lie beneath their physico-chemical stability, easy functionalisation, low toxicity and their great loading capacity of many different types of therapeutic agents. The present brief overview tries to cover some of the recent findings on stimuli-responsive mesoporous silica nanocarriers together with the efforts to design targeted nanosystems using that platform. The versatility of those smart nanocarriers has promoted them as very promising candidates to be used in the clinic in the near future to overcome some of the pitfalls of conventional medicine. .
[en] In this article, we describe the one-side functionalization of graphene nanosheets with hydrophilic catechol-bearing pyrrolidine rings. For this purpose, we used, for the first time, a solvothermal alternative of 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide. To achieve asymmetrical reaction, graphene nanosheets were initially and during reaction deposited on glass substrate. The result of one-side functionalization of graphene was the formation of amphiphilic few-layered graphene nanosheets. The modified side becomes hydrophilic due to the attachment of catechols, while the nonmodified side remains hydrophobic. In the literature, there are limited examples of functionalized graphene with different sides, the so-called Janus-type graphenes. These amphiphilic graphene nanosheets dispersed in water were self-organized in bilayer superstructures, with hydrophilic outer surface and hydrophobic internal space. The later can host hydrophobic molecules such as anticancer drugs and could be used in drug delivery systems. As an example, camptothecin, a drug practically insoluble in water, was used here to show that it can be transferred to water phase using graphene as transporter.
[en] Despite improved clinical care, heightened public awareness and wide spread use of health innovations, alcoholism remains a leading cause of death in many parts of the world. Chronic alcoholics suffer from stress and multitude of symptoms. The progressive addiction to alcohol will gradually nullify all other interests in the patient's life so that a deterioration of the physical, psychological, social, cultural and religious values takes place. The role of yoga in healing asthma, arthritis and other disorders has been known. Methods: Breathing technique (Anuloma Viloma Pranayama) was taught to chronic alcoholics. Using galvanic skin resistance, stress levels were measured before and after anuloma viloma yoga in controls and chronic alcoholics. Results: Reduced stress levels were noted using the galvanic skin resistance in both controls and chronic alcoholics after yogic breathing. Conclusion: There is a promising effect of simple yoga techniques in organising effective rehabilitation and treatment programmes to reduce stress in chronic alcoholics. This study would help to chart out a better management programme for enhancing relapse and alleviate the symptoms. (author)
[en] According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects