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[en] A process description and system flow sheets have been prepared to support the design/build package for the Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister drying and inerting process skid. A process flow diagram was prepared to show the general steps to dry and inert the Shippingport fuel loaded into SSFCs for transport and dry storage. Flow sheets have been prepared to show the flows and conditions for the various steps of the drying and inerting process. Calculations and data supporting the development of the flow sheets are included
[en] There are two types of drying process. One is vacuum drying. Vacuum drying process is used widely because drying system is very simple. The other is forced dehydration drying. It is based on drying of forced convection using circulating of very dried gas. In vacuum drying, residual water in canister could be indirectly figured out by pressure rise of vaporization. The exact amount of water could not be directly measured. To find out how much residual water is remained during drying process, analytical calculation of vacuum drying process was performed. The calculation program of vacuum drying was developed to analyze analytically vacuum drying process of transfer/storage canister or cask with spent nuclear fuel. The effect of residual water and temperature on vacuum drying was compared. As the temperature increased, required time for vacuum drying decreased due to faster evaporation of residual water.
[en] In order to maintain the integrity of spent nuclear fuel when spent nuclear fuel is stored in the dry storage system, water within the canister is drained, residual moisture in the canister and spent nuclear fuel must be removed, and spent nuclear fuel have to be stored in inert gas atmosphere. Drying equipment is required to remove the residual moisture remaining in the canister of the spent nuclear fuel storage system and spent nuclear fuel. In order to evaluate the amount of residual moisture remaining in the canister after drying the moisture present in the canister of the spent nuclear fuel storage system using the drying equipment, measurement system capable of measuring moisture content should be established.
[en] The purpose of drying and filling helium gas in the canister is to prevent corrosion and hydration of the spent nuclear fuels as well as corrosion of internal canister components during the dry transport and storage. The drying process takes a considerable amount of time to be completed. In this study, two types of drying process technologies were compared and analyzed. The forced helium drying system is more complicated than the vacuum drying system. However, the helium drying system has some advantages. The main advantage is the heat transfer efficiency in the canister. Another advantage is the shorter drying time relative to vacuum drying. Moreover, the amounts of residual water in the canister during the drying processes were estimated through theoretical analysis. The results of this study will be used as the basic design data in a helium drying system.
[en] Technical Issues for the interim dry storage of N Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are discussed. Characterization data from fuel, to support resolution of these issues, are reviewed and new results for the oxidation of fuel in a moist atmosphere and the drying of whole fuel elements are presented. Characterization of associated K basin sludge is also discussed in light of a newly adopted disposal pathway
[en] In this study, we apply the drying model of polymer solution coated on a flat substrate to the spray drying granulation process in formulation. In order to apply the former model to the drying of this spherical object, we consider this spherical object to be a stack of solution films applied on the spherical shell and discuss the drying process of each solution film. As a result, we see that the smaller the radius of curvature of the droplet, the more the fine particles tend to be unevenly distributed on the surface of the droplets during drying. (Author)
[en] High quality drying of therapeutic protein-solution is important in medical and pharmaceutical processing. Freeze-drying is mostly used, but it takes a long drying-time and causes damages of protein structures. In order to improve the drying quality, we propose a microwave vacuum drying performed at ambient temperatures under low-pressure conditions. We are focusing on the Parma-Zyme method for the evaporative drying of protein solutions such as egg white or lysozyme with vitrification. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is used to detect protein conformation changes due to the drying, and it is found that the ambient temperature drying can preserve the protein conformation. (Author)
[en] Harnessing the benefits of rosemary polyphenols is limited by variability in their physicochemical properties. These limitations may be overcome by encapsulation in systems possessing hydro-lipophilic centers thereby accommodating molecules of different polarities. Proliposomes offer a viable option in this regards, being particles which form liposomal suspension in water. Lyophilized extracts of rosemary was encapsulated in hydrogenatedsoyphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol by solvent replacement method. Spray dried proliposomes were obtained with lactose as carrier. Using Central Composite Design, the effects of lipid, extract and carrier concentrations on response variables including bioactive content and retention, moisture content characteristics, recuperation and redispersibility were evaluated by statistical analysis. (Author)
[en] Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) refers to drug - carrier systems, where the drug is dispersed in the carrier at a molecular level. In this work, ASDs were formulated by spray drying. The aim was to achieve high drug loads of an amorphous hydrophobic drug (Efavirenz - EFV) in the carrier Soluplus®. Solid state characterizations (mDSC, XRPD, DVS, Raman, SEM, stability and solubility studies) were done. EFV amorphisation in ASDs (20 to 85% EFV loads) resulted in improved drug solubility compared to unprocessed EFV crystals and tendency of properties evolution over time for ASDs with EFV loads higher than 70 wt%. (Author)
[en] The aim of this work is investigate the use of a rotary dryer with inert bed for drying of microalga Spirulina platensis. The influence of air temperature, feed rate, rotation speed and inerts filling degree was quantified. The contents of main bioactive compounds were also analyzed. The results shown that the used drying system proved to be an interesting alternative for a possible use of this microalga, if performed under adequate conditions. It was identified conditions with high drying performance and with the preservation of product quality. (Author)