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[en] To evaluate the effects of propranolol on Daphnia magna (D. magna), we employed a multi-generational exposure period for eight generations and an environmentally relevant low concentration with 1.5 ng/L, 0.2 μg/L and 26 μg/L to reflect a realistic exposure scenario. Physiological endpoints were checked, including growth, number of neonates, heart rate, frequency of abdominal appendage movement and malformation rate of neonates. In the results, growth and abdominal appendage movement were affected by environmental concentration during several generations, and the responses showed consistent tendencies of response increase with concentration increase. Heart rate was the only endpoint affected throughout all exposure generations. Inhibitory and acceleratory effects on heart rate, growth and abdominal appendage movement suggest that it is necessary to cover sub-lethal endpoints of non-targeted organisms in eco-toxicity study because the physiological responses were detected at much lower concentrations than the results of traditional toxicity tests, including environmental concentration. - Highlights: • Multi-generational exposure was conducted to evaluate the effect of propranolol on Daphnia magna. • Heart rate was the only endpoint affected throughout all exposure generations. • Growth and abdominal appendage movement were affected at environmental concentrations. • Time series fluctuations in responses appeared with no tendencies throughout all generations. • It is necessary to cover sub-organismal endpoints and long-term exposure in ecotoxicity test. - Heart rate, growth and abdominal appendage movement of D. magna were affected by the multigenerational exposure of propranolol at environmental levels.
[en] The interdiffusion coefficients are estimated either following the Wagner's method expressed with respect to the composition (mol or atomic fraction) normalized variable after considering the molar volume variation or the den Broeder's method expressed with respect to the concentration (composition divided by the molar volume) normalized variable. On the other hand, the relations for estimation of the intrinsic diffusion coefficients of components as established by van Loo and integrated diffusion coefficients in a phase with narrow homogeneity range as established by Wagner are currently available with respect to the composition normalized variable only. In this study, we have first derived the relation proposed by den Broeder following the line of treatment proposed by Wagner. Further, the relations for estimation of the intrinsic diffusion coefficients of the components and integrated interdiffusion coefficient are established with respect to the concentration normalized variable, which were not available earlier. The veracity of these methods is examined based on the estimation of data in Ni–Pd, Ni–Al and Cu–Sn systems. Our analysis indicates that both the approaches are logically correct and there is small difference in the estimated data in these systems although a higher difference could be found in other systems. The integrated interdiffusion coefficients with respect to the concentration (or concentration normalized variable) can only be estimated considering the ideal molar volume variation. This might be drawback in certain practical systems.
[en] The unattached fraction of radon progeny is one of the most important factors for radon exposure evaluation through the dosimetric approach. To better understand its level and variation in the real environment, a series of field measurements were carried out indoors and outdoors, and radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was also measured. The dose contribution of unattached radon progeny was evaluated in addition. The results show that no clear variation trend of the unattached fraction of radon progeny is observed in an indoor or outdoor environment. The average unattached fraction of radon progeny for the indoors and outdoors are (8.7 ± 1.6)% and (9.7 ± 2.1)%, respectively. The dose contribution of unattached radon progeny to total radon exposure is some 38.8% in an indoor environment, suggesting the importance of the evaluation on unattached radon progeny. (note)
[en] This study was dedicated to the study of the concentration of Radon-222 in water samples collected at 17 different points along the Kura and Aras rivers. A portable radon detector RAD-7 was used to measure the concentration of radon. In all studied water samples, the isotope Rn-222 was observed, the activity of which varies in the range of 0.11-11.6 Bq/l. It was found that the activity of Rn222 for well water from the Yevlakh region is 11.6 Bq/l, which easily increases the maximum level of radon contamination in drinking water proposed by the EPA, but below the action level of 100 Bq/l recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).
[en] Endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as the free estrogens 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1) and the conjugated estrogen estrone-sulfate (E1-3S) are found at low concentration levels in the environment. This is somehow contradictory to the strong sorption and high degradation potentials found in laboratory experiments. In particular, the fate and transport behavior of conjugated estrogens is poorly understood, and the importance of enzymes triggering the transformation pathways has received little attention. To address these deficiencies, the present research uses packed laboratory soil columns with pulse injections of free estrogens, either E2 or E1, or E1-3S, to provide sound evidence of the transformation pathways. It is further shown that (i) transport of free estrogens is subject to strong retardation and degradation, (ii) the transport of conjugated estrogens is less retarded and only to a minor degree affected by degradation, and (iii) arylsulfotransferase is the enzyme triggering the transformation reaction. - Highlights: • The transformation pathway of E2, E1 and E1-3S is explained for Bet Dagan soil. • Arylsulfotransferase (ASULT) is the relevant enzyme operating in Bet Dagan soil. • E1-3S forms after E2 or E1 injection in Bet Dagan soil. - The metabolic transformation pathway of E2, E1 and E1-3S in Bet Dagan soil has been clarified and the role of the enzyme arylsulfotransferase was identified.
[en] Generally, ecotoxicologists rely on short-term tests that assume populations to be static. Conversely, natural populations may be exposed to the same stressors for many generations, which can alter tolerance to the same (or other) stressors. The objective of this study was to improve our understanding of how multigenerational stressors alter life history traits and stressor tolerance. After continuously exposing Daphnia magna to cadmium for 120 days, we assessed life history traits and conducted a challenge at higher temperature and cadmium concentrations. Predictably, individuals exposed to cadmium showed an overall decrease in reproductive output compared to controls. Interestingly, control D. magna were the most cadmium tolerant to novel cadmium, followed by those exposed to high cadmium. Our data suggest that long-term exposure to cadmium alter tolerance traits in a non-monotonic way. Because we observed effects after one-generation removal from cadmium, transgenerational effects may be possible as a result of multigenerational exposure. - Highlights: • Daphnia magna exposed to cadmium for 120 days. • D. magna exposed to cadmium had decreased reproductive output. • Control D. magna were most cadmium tolerant to novel cadmium stress. • Long-term exposure to cadmium alter tolerance traits in a non-monotonic way. • Transgenerational effects observed as a result of multigenerational exposure. - Adverse effects of long-term cadmium exposure persist into cadmium free conditions, as seen by non-monotonic responses when exposed to novel stress one generation removed.
[en] The current levels of surface ozone (O3) are high enough to negatively affect trees in large regions of São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, where standards for the protection of vegetation against the adverse effects of O3 do not exist. We evaluated three O3 metrics – phytotoxic ozone dose (POD), accumulated ozone exposure over the threshold of 40 ppb h (AOT40), and the sum of all hourly average concentrations (SUM00) – for the Brazilian native tropical tree species Astronium graveolens Jacq. We used the DO3SE (Deposition of Ozone for Stomatal Exchange) model and calculated PODY for different thresholds (from 0 to 6 mmol O3 m−2 PLA s−1), evaluating the model's performance through the relationship between measured and modelled conductance. The response parameters were: visible foliar injury, considered as incidence (% injured plants), severity (% injured leaves in relation to the number of leaves on injured plants), and leaf abscission. The model performance was suitable and significant (R2 = 0.58; p < 0.001). POD0 was better correlated to incidence and leaf abscission, and SUM00 was better correlated to severity. The highest values of O3 concentration-based metrics (AOT40 and SUM00) did not coincide with those of POD0. Further investigation may improve the model and contribute to the proposition of a national standard for the protection of native species. - Highlights: • O3 uptake and O3 exposure metrics were evaluated for a tropical tree species. • The stomatal conductance model explained 58% of variability in measured gs. • POD with no threshold present the best performance followed by SUM00 and AOT40. • Results may contribute to creating a Brazilian forest protection standard against O3.
[en] The scientific literature is a good source of information about soil-to-plant transfer, usually documented as mean concentration ratios. It does not provide, however, good information about variation in concentration ratio values, because most studies are done with limited numbers of crops and soils. Fortunately, a suitably large and diverse database is available from the International Union of Radioecologists that can be used to investigate variation. It has a total of over 7,000 concentration ratio values for over 22 elements. This paper reports on analysis of the geometric standard deviations obtained from the database. We assert that geometric standard deviation values are comparable and transferable among elements, so that geometric standard deviations calculated from large databases can be applied to other elements when there is a paucity of data. For a fully generic situation, where neither crops nor soil types are known, the geometric standard deviations is typically about 6. This implies a 1,300-fold range to encompass 95% of the data. For concentration ratios obtained for crops of interest on a specific site, the geometric standard deviation values are much lower, about 1.5. This still implies a fivefold range to encompass 95% of the data. Other values of geometric standard deviations for intermediate levels of information are provided. These estimates of geometric standard deviation are important to and appropriate for stochastic simulations of the impacts of soil contamination on crops and subsequent food chains. They are also important to the inclusivity of concentration ratios value distributions for unusual but perhaps important crops and settings. (author)
[en] This study investigates concentrations of perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkane sulfonamides (FASA) in plasma from ringed seals sampled in the period 1990–2010 (n = 71) in Svalbard, Norway. Perfluorooctane sulfonate was dominant among the perfluoroalkyl substances. PFCAs were dominated by perfluoroundecanoate followed by perfluorononanoate. C4−C8 PFCAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) were detected in ≤42% of the samples. PFSA and PFCA concentrations were higher in seals sampled from Kongsfjorden, a fjord influenced by strong inflows of Atlantic Water compared to seals from fjords dominated by Arctic Water (e.g. Billefjorden). Sex, age and body condition of the seals did not influence PFAS concentrations. Due to the confounding effect of year and sampling area, temporal trends were assessed only in seals sampled from Kongsfjorden (5 years, n = 51). PFHxS and PFOS concentrations did not show significant linear trends during the whole study period, but a decrease was observed since 2004. Concentrations of all of the detected PFCAs (C9−C13 PFCAs) increased until 2004 after which they have declined or stabilized. - Highlights: • 16 PFASs analyzed in ringed seals from Svalbard sampled 1990–2010 (n = 71). • Higher PFASs in seals from fjords dominated by warmer, saltier Atlantic Water. • Sex, age and body condition had no influence on PFAS concentrations. • C9−C13 PFCAs increased until 2004 after which they have declined or stabilized. • PFOS and PFHxS remained stable in the period 1990–2010. - Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances are influenced by hydrographic characteristics of sampling location and sampling year in ringed seals from Svalbard.
[en] Competitive ability and numerical dominance are important factors contributing to the ability of invasive ant species to establish and expand their ranges in new habitats. However, few studies have investigated the impact of environmental contamination on competitive behavior in ants as a potential factor influencing dynamics between invasive and native ant species. Here we investigated the widespread contaminant selenium to investigate its potential influence on invasion by the exotic Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, through effects on reproduction and competitive behavior. For the fecundity experiment, treatments were provided to Argentine ant colonies via to sugar water solutions containing one of three concentrations of selenium (0, 5 and 10 μg Se mL−1) that fall within the range found in soil and plants growing in contaminated areas. Competition experiments included both the Argentine ant and the native Dorymyrmex bicolor to determine the impact of selenium exposure (0 or 15 μg Se mL−1) on exploitation- and interference-competition between ant species. The results of the fecundity experiment revealed that selenium negatively impacted queen survival and brood production of Argentine ants. Viability of the developing brood was also affected in that offspring reached adulthood only in colonies that were not given selenium, whereas those in treated colonies died in their larval stages. Selenium exposure did not alter direct competitive behaviors for either species, but selenium exposure contributed to an increased bait discovery time for D. bicolor. Our results suggest that environmental toxins may not only pose problems for native ant species, but may also serve as a potential obstacle for establishment among exotic species. - Highlights: • Argentine ant colonies exposed to selenium had reduced fecundity compared to unexposed colonies. • Viability of offspring was negatively impacted by selenium. • Queen survival was reduced in colonies treated with selenium. • Interference competition for both the invasive species and the native species was not impacted by selenium. • Selenium exposure contributed to an increase in bait discovery time by the native ant species, Dorymyrmex bicolor. - The findings of this study highlight the potential impacts of environmental contamination as a barrier in range expansion of invasive ant species.