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[en] Solar scientist are well aware of the low energy density of solar radiation. A fully tracking collector at the sunniest spot on this planet will receive a little excess of 3000 kWh per year per m2 of solar radiation (beam plus diffused). In most places the figure is far lower. Conversion efficiencies, from solar radiation to electricity, vary from a fraction of 1% for a photo-synthesis-hybrid-thermal converter, to to a maximum well below 40% for the highest temperature thermal systems. It is this low output per unit area that presents the major problem in achieving economic viability, discontinuity in the energy supply being, by comparison, a minor inconvenience. The economics of various solar conversion systems is presented, using an unsophisticated approach in order to see more vividly the issues involved. Economic viability depends not only on cost and output but on the cost of alternatively energy supplies at site in question
[en] Extreme weather events and water challenges have ranked within the top 3 greatest risks to the global economy for the last 5 years, according to the World Economic Forum annual assessments (WEF, 2019a). Around 70-90% of the economic losses caused by floods across Europe between now and 2050 can be attributed to the increase in the value of assets in floodplain areas, with the rest attributed to climate change (EEA, 2016).
[en] The RA nuclear research reactor in Vinca Institute is a significant scientific, technological and economic national resource. Its initial value has been diminished during many years of exploitation, but enlarged also through the modernization of reactor systems and construction of some new ones. Assuming that the basic installation has lost no more than % of its initial value, and taking into account adequate economic parameters, it has been estimated that the present value of the RA reactor exceeds 34.000.000 US D. 2 refs