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[en] Highlights: • We investigate the effects of oil rents on medium and long-term economic growth. • We use Bayesian Model Averaging techniques to address model uncertainty and an updated cross-country data set. • We find no empirical evidence for the existence of a natural resource curse, rather a positive effect in the long-run. • Robustness checks with panel data find neither a curse nor a positive effect of oil rents on short to medium-run growth. - Abstract: The evidence for the effects of oil rents on growth is mixed, a result which can be explained with model uncertainty. We address the issue using Bayesian Model Averaging techniques and an updated cross-country data set for long-term growth in the period 1970–2014, including 91 countries and 54 potential growth determinants. We do not find empirical evidence for the existence of a ''natural resource curse'' in our sample. On the contrary, our results suggest a robust positive effect of oil rents on long-term economic growth. We then introduce interaction terms of oil rents with potential conditions under which oil dependency can lead to sub-standard growth. The results indicate that the positive effect of oil rents may be conditional on the quality of institutions. We test the robustness of our results using a panel data set and find neither a curse nor a positive effect of oil rents on short- to medium-run growth.
[en] Governance of nanotechnology is essential for realizing economic growth and other societal benefits of the new technology, protecting public health and environment, and supporting global collaboration and progress. The article outlines governance principles and methods specific for this emerging field. Advances in the last 10 years, the current status and a vision for the next decade are presented based on an international study with input from over 35 countries.
[en] This work aims to contribute to the existing literature by investigating at the impact of financial development on ecological footprint. To achieve this goal, we have employed Driscoll-Kraay panel regression model for a panel of 59 Belt and Road countries in the period from 1990 to 2016. The findings suggest that financial development increases ecological footprint. Moreover, economic growth, energy consumption, foreign direct investment (FDI), and urbanization pollute the environment by increasing ecological footprint. In addition, several diagnostic tests have been applied to confirm the reliability and validity of the results. From the outcome of the study, various policy implications have been proposed for Belt and Road countries to minimize the ecological footprint.
[en] Article 42 of Kenyan constitution 2010 promises its citizen the highest attainable standard of healthcare. During the African Union Conference an AU-Abuja declaration - allocates 15% of National budget was allocated to health. The educational Curriculum must be aligned to the type of health structure and their need to Create Medical discipline related centers and Distribute them in different counties across the country
[en] This article reports the results of a joint study conducted by the C.E.A. Programmes Department (MM. Thiriet, Duperrin and Godet) and the E.D.F. Service of General Economics Research (M. Puiseux) since 1973. In the first stage about sixty variables were taken by common consent as liable to influence directly or indirectly the long-term development of nuclear energy (technical progress, ecological obligations, economic and political factors ...). A ''structural analysis matrix'' was then drawn up to find out the influence (or lack of influence) of each variable on each of the others. At the end of this first stage the main aspects of nuclear energy development by the year 2000 were summed up by six events on situations which may arise and influence it. From the subjective probabilities (individual and conditional) estimated by people questioned on these six events the new method of crossed impacts ''SMIC 74'' gives three kinds of results: firstly it established the consistency in probability terms of all replies given by an expert on the events studied. Secondly it builds and grades the possible nuclear energy development synopses of which there are 64=26, i.e. as many as there are combinations of events. Thirdly it performs a strategical sensitivity analysis, i.e. an estimate can be made of the way in which the whole system of events is affected by any actions taken by decision-makers to promote or delay the development of one event or another
[fr]Le but de cet article est de presenter les resultats d'un travail d'equipe mene conjointement par le Departement des Programmes du CEA (MM. Thiriet, Duperrin et Godet) et par le Service des Etudes Economiques Generales de l'E.D.F. (M. Puiseux) depuis 1973. Dans une premiere etape, une soixantaine de variables ont ete retenues d'un commun accord comme pouvant influencer directement ou indirectement le developpement a long terme de l'energie nucleaire progres technique, contraintes ecologiques, donnees economiques et politiques...). Une matrice ''d'analyse structurelle'' a ensuite ete dressee pour recuperer l'influence (ou l'absence d'influence) de chaque variable sur chacune des autres. A l'issue de cette premiere etape les aspects essentiels du developpement de l'energie nucleaire a l'horizon 2000 ont ete resumes par six evenements ou situations pouvant survenir et influencer ce developpement. A partir des probabilites subjectives (individuelles et conditionnelles) estimees par les personnes interrogees sur ces six evenements, la nouvelle methode d'impacts croises ''SMIC 74'' fournit trois types de resultats: en premier lieu, elle etablit la coherence, en terme de probabilites de toutes reponses donnees par un expert sur les evenements etudies. En second lieu elle construit et hierarchise les scenarios possibles du developpement de l'energie nucleaire: il y en a 64=26 c'est-a-dire autant que de combinaisons d'evenements. En troisieme lieu, elle realise une analyse strategique de sensibilite, c'est-a-dire qu'elle permet d'evaluer les effets sur tout le systeme d'evenements des actions qui peuvent etre entreprises par le decideur pour favoriser ou retarder le developpement de tel ou tel evenement
[en] Nuclear industry is the 3. industrial sector in France, it generates a global sales revenue of 47.5 billion euros and involves about 3000 firms employing more than 220.000 qualified people. This infographic shows that all the stages of the nuclear chain are present in France from uranium processing to waste management via enrichment or recycling or reactor construction. It is also shown that nuclear activities (research centers, nuclear power plants, fuel fabrication plants, waste storages sites, and engineering activities) are spread all over the country except in Brittany and Corsica. (A.C.)
[en] This study focuses on whether information and communication technology (ICT) contributes to economic growth in countries with better human development index as compared to those with a lower index. The study uses panel data estimation methods those are robust to dependencies across countries and heterogeneity from 1990 to 2016 in developing Asian countries. The results documented that countries with better human development index and mobile phone usage promote economic growth, whereas Internet users do not seem to do so. Despite that, human development index itself is a critical factor that contributes to economic growth in Asian countries. Finally, both mobile phone usages contribute to economic growth, but Internet usage does not seem to do. These new findings recommend that whereas better human development is regarded as crucial for mobile phone usage, it appears to be inappropriate for Internet usage. An additional feature is that the study uses the most robust panel data estimation method that produces more effective and reliable estimates.
[en] China is currently in the process of industrialization and urbanization, which is the key stage of transition from a low-income country to a middle-income country and requires large amount of energy. The process will not end until 2020, so China's primary energy demand will keep high growth in the mid-term. Although each country is unique considering its particular history and background, all countries are sharing some common rules in energy demand for economic development. Based on the comparison with developed countries, here, we report some rules in the process of industrialization and urbanization as follows: (1) urbanization always goes along with industrialization; (2) the higher economic growth is, the higher energy demand is; (3) economic globalization makes it possible to shorten the time of industrialization, but the shorter the transition phase is, the faster energy demand grows; (4) the change of energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve, but whose shape can be changed for different energy policy. The above rules are very important for the Chinese government in framing its energy policy. - Highlights: ► China's energy demand will maintain high growth in mid-term. ► Urbanization always goes along with industrialization. ► Higher economic growth needs more energy. ► The energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve.