Results 1 - 10 of 1964
Results 1 - 10 of 1964. Search took: 0.021 seconds
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[en] Fledgling production has often been used as an estimator of avian reproductive success, and it is conditioned by factors affecting offspring development and/or survival during the nesting period. We aimed to determine which predictors influenced fledgling output among a set of basic breeding parameters and local temperature data collected over 25 years in a Mediterranean great tit, Parus major, population, using an information–theoretic approach for model selection. Of the studied variables, the number of hatchlings per nest was the single–most important predictor influencing fledgling production, with larger broods eventually yielding more fledglings, although mass prior to fledging may have been compromised. This result suggests an overall good adjustment between brood size and resource availability in the studied population. (Author)
[en] Dietary cholesterol should be limited to less than 200 mg/ day. A single large egg yolk contains approximately 275 mg of cholesterol. Thus, consumption of a single egg yolk exceeds the recommended daily intake of cholesterol. This study was focused on determination of the effect of addition of increasing amount of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to encapsulate cholesterol in egg yolk. The quality of cholesterol-reduced egg yolk powder was evaluated by determining its nutritional composition and colour analysis. Increasing amount of β-CD (0-15 mM) was added in liquid egg yolk and the encapsulated cholesterol in the form of precipitate was removed. The supernatant was dried and the end product; cholesterol-reduced egg yolk powder (CREYP) was analyzed for moisture content, total lipid, fatty acids content, protein and colour. There were no significant difference (p>0.05) in term of total solid content. However, protein content of CREYP was significantly (p<0.05) reduced up to 7 mM β-CD and no further significant reduction was noticed with further addition of β-cyclodextrin. The appearance of the powder became lighter in colour as validated using chromameter; L*, a*, b*, C* and ho values. The results obtained from this study indicate that cholesterol can be successfully removed from egg yolk. However, slight reduction in protein content was observed. Nutritional composition of CREYP was minimally affected with the removal of encapsulated cholesterol. Therefore, cholesterol-reduced egg yolk powder can be utilized as an essential ingredient in any egg yolk based products. (author)
[en] The diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella L. were reared with cabbage leaves under field condition at Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station (16-47 degree celsius, 22-96% R.H.). The average duration of the egg, larval (1st and 2nd instar, 3rd instar and 4th instar), pupal and male and female adult stages were 3.21± 0.30, 5.57 ± 0.60, 3.16 ± 1.07, 3.43+0.97, 3.88 ± 1.59, 17.72 ± 2.74 and 16.16 ± 3.93 days respectively. Female laid eggs at 1 day old and the highest number of eggs were counted in the 2nd day of the oviposition period. The number of eggs laid per female averaged 109+77.60 eggs, ranging from 17 to 248 eggs. The life cycle from egg to adult stage was 13-31 days. The population parameters were the cohort generation time (Tc)=23.45 days, the net reproductive rate (Ro)=25 and the finite rate of increase (λ)=1.15 time per day respectively. Studies on reproductive system of this insect showed that the developed testes were found in the 4th instar larva while developed ovaries were found after emergence. Male mated many times (average 3.33 times) while almost female mated only once (92%). The ecological life table of this insect was studied in the cabbage field at the Khao Khor Highland Agricultural Research Station. The eggs hatch was 55.89% and the highest mortality occurred in the 1st and 2nd instar larval period (64.37%). The disease and parasites caused the high mortality in the 4th larval and pupal period (49.64 and 46.38%)
[en] This study aimed to assess the effects of Basagran® on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The embryos were exposed to Basagran® at concentrations ranging from 120.0 to 480.6 mg/L, and the effects on embryo development (up to 96 h) and bacterial communities of 96 h-larvae were assessed. The embryo development response was time-dependent and concentration-dependent (106.35 < EC50 < 421.58 mg/L). The sensitivity of embryo-related endpoints decreased as follows: blood clotting in the head and/or around the yolk sac > delay or anomaly in yolk sac absorption > change in swimming equilibrium > development of pericardial and/or yolk sac oedema > scoliosis. A PCR-DGGE analysis was used to evaluate changes in the structure, richness, evenness and diversity of bacterial communities after herbicide exposure. A herbicide-induced structural adjustment of bacterial community was observed. In this study, it was successfully demonstrated that Basagran® affected zebrafish embryos and associated bacterial communities, showing time-dependent and concentration-dependent embryos' developmental response and structural changes in bacterial community. Thus, this work provides for the first time a complementary approach, which is useful to derive robust toxicity thresholds considering the embryo-microbiota system as a whole. The aquatic hazard assessment will be strengthened by combining current ecotoxicological tests with molecular microbiology tools. - Highlights: • This study highlights Basagran® as an important stressor to zebrafish embryos. • Basagran® induced developmental effects on zebrafish embryos. • The structure of bacterial community associated with zebrafish embryos was affected. - Exposure of zebrafish embryos to Basagran® affects their development and structurally changes their associated bacterial communities.