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[en] The availability of commercial charging units for quartz fibre electroscope dosimeters (QFEs) in the United Kingdom has been limited to small battery units intended for use in laboratory conditions. The use of large numbers of QFEs by semi-skilled staff has resulted in damage to many dosimeters, particularly at the charging pins. Difficulties have also been experienced in the viewing of the scale and fibre in non-laboratory lighting conditions. These problems have resulted in the development of a robust charging and viewing unit, which is described in this report. The new unit which is mains electricity powered, is contained in a case 230 x 305 x 150 mm weighing 4.5 kg. (U.K.)
[en] Between 1900 and 1913 several people were investigating about the unknown radiation, later identified as Cosmic Rays. Several experimentalist tried to identify the origin of this radiation and in particular Victor Franz Hess, Theodor Wulf and Domenico Pacini. Among them Domenico Pacini had a crucial role to address the answer to the origin of this radiation in the right way, and V.F. Hess performed the complete set of measurements that definitively excluded an origin connected to the soil radioactive elements. However the most interesting and may be surprising point it that these pioneers defined 1 century ago the three experimental lines to study the Cosmic Rays: from space, on ground and underground and using only electroscopes. Domenico Pacini in particular may be considered the pioneer of the underground measurements on Cosmic Rays and Hess with his set of systematic measurements with balloon flights, originated the air-space studies on Cosmic Rays.
[en] A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs
[en] In order to use the practical training for beginners by means of a diagnostic X-ray, a leaf electroscope (which has a function to explain the ionization) was newly produced. The X-ray was introduced to the air in the electroscope having the electric charged leaf (the leaf was open at this time). The air irradiated by the X-ray was ionized, and then the produced ions or electrons were combined with charges on the leaf. As a result, the leaf was closed. In this way, experimenters can know the production and/or movement of charges by observing the conditions of the leaf. For the developed leaf electroscope, we added separators to divide the inner space into two regions; one is the irradiation area and the other is the space including the leaf. The separators have through-holes and/or a metallic mesh in order to create various conditions. In this paper, we described that different experimental results based on uses of the different separators were reflected in the ionization of the irradiated air and in the interaction of the charged particles. We summarized that the practical training by means of the developed leaf electroscope was valuable to educate beginners. (author)