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[en] We describe here the expression of c-fos oncogene in the growth stimulated cells e.g., mouse prenatal tissues, FCS treated NIH-3T3 fibroblast and A549 human lung cancer cells. Total cellular RNA was isolated from A/J and C57BL/5J mouse embryos at the 13 and 17 day of pregnancy. NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast and A549 lung cancer cells were stimulated using the 15% FCS after serum depletion for 2-3 days. During the serum stimulation, c-fos expression was detected at time intervals by the dot blot analysis using the 32 P-labelled c-fos DNA probe. RNAs isolated from mouse prenatal tissues were strongly hybridized with c-fos. c-fos induction was detected from 30 minutes after serum stimulation in NIH-3T3 cells, and turned off after 2hrs. On the other hand, c-fos in the A549 lung cancer cells was independent on the serum stimulation and very strongly expressed even in the serum depleted codition. These results indicate the possible implication of growth control by the turning off the oncogene expression. (Author)
[en] Highlights: • Human mutations in ANOS1 cause Kallmann syndrome. • Anos1 is a target of Pax3 and Zic1 in Xenopus laevis. • Anos1 is expressed in cranial neural crest cells and cranial placode derivatives. • Anos1 knockdown affects both neural crest and sensory organs formation. • Anos1-depleted Xenopus is a model to study the pathogenesis of Kallmann syndrome. During embryogenesis vertebrates develop a complex craniofacial skeleton associated with sensory organs. These structures are primarily derived from two embryonic cell populations the neural crest and cranial placodes, respectively. Neural crest cells and cranial placodes are specified through the integrated action of several families of signaling molecules, and the subsequent activation of a complex network of transcription factors. Here we describe the expression and function of Anosmin-1 (Anos1), an extracellular matrix protein, during neural crest and cranial placodes development in Xenopus laevis. Anos1 was identified as a target of Pax3 and Zic1, two transcription factors necessary and sufficient to generate neural crest and cranial placodes. Anos1 is expressed in cranial neural crest progenitors at early neurula stage and in cranial placode derivatives later in development. We show that Anos1 function is required for neural crest and sensory organs development in Xenopus, consistent with the defects observed in Kallmann syndrome patients carrying a mutation in ANOS1. These findings indicate that anos1 has a conserved function in the development of craniofacial structures, and indicate that anos1-depleted Xenopus embryos represent a useful model to analyze the pathogenesis of Kallmann syndrome.
[en] Several protocols of plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench have been development, however the percentage of calluses with embryogenic structures and plant regeneration are low. Therefore this study aimed to generate somatic embryos in red sorghum variety CIAP 132-R. Different concentrations of 2,4-D for callus formation, and three concentrations of ascorbic acid to remove phenolics exudation were assayed by explant. For the formation of embryos different concentrations of 2,4-D and 6-BAP were evaluated. The highest percentage of callus formation (57.5 %) was achieved with 18.1 μM 2,4-D. With the addition to the culture medium of 50.0 mg.l-1 of ascorbic acid was possible to eliminate the phenolic compounds in the explant and in the culture medium; also it allows increasing the percentage of calluses with embryogenic structures up to 95 %. The highest number of somatic embryos per callus was achieved with a reduction in the culture medium of 2,4-D to 4.52 μM in combination with 2.22 μM 6-BAP. For the first time, the efficiency of somatic embryo formation was obtained from the freshly germinated sprouts of immature seeds as initial explant CIAP 132-R.
[en] Ectopic thyroid tissue is a rare entity, resulting from developmental abnormality during the migration of the embryonic thyroid germ from the floor of the primitive foregut to its final pre-tracheal position. Although ectopic thyroid tissue may be located anywhere, its location at the skull base is extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic thyroid tissue at the skull base in a 19-year-old man with multimodality imaging findings.
[en] The ICR pregnant mice were irradiated at 1.5Gy in every 6 hours in the period of organogenesis in order to classify the stage specificity of the embryonic effects of radiation and the stage of development differentiation of the primordium of each major organ. Intrauterine death, fetal body weight and external malformation in live fetuses were observed on day 18 of gestation. There was no statistically significant difference in the intrauterine mortality at any stage organogenesis. The fetal body weight of the mice irradiated in the intermediate stage of organogenesis showed significantly lower. There were specific highly sensitive stages in the incidences of each external malformation, that is exencephalia, open eyelid, cleft palate, anomalies of extremities and anomalies of the tail. At these stage, the primordial of the major organs are established in ICR mice
[en] Complete text of publication follows. Brain damage induced by prenatal irradiation is of major concern in radioprotection. The brain is the final result of a series of well timed consecutive or concomitant waves of cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Acute irradiation during pregnancy could selectively disturb these events to result in various forms of malformation such as microcephaly, reduced cortical thickness and mental retardation. Such events were previously described in epidemiological studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima/Nagasaki. Using cDNA-microarrays and real-time PCR we analyzed the modulated genes upon 50 cGy X-ray irradiation in embryonic mouse brain. The main activated pathways are involved in the induction of Trp53 dependent programmed cell death, and the intercellular signalling cascades. The strong upregulation of Ccng1, Trp53inp1 and Cdkn1a suggested that the tumour suppressor P53 is an essential regulator of the radiation induced stress response. Although in the Trp53 null mutant embryos, our data highlights differential expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression. Various cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases were down regulated. Regional analysis of the irradiated anterior brain at E15 by in situ hybridization with Trp53inp1 and Ccng1 probes, suggested that there is a specific regional dependent expression in the anterior brain. Especially Ccng1 and the P53 downstream cell cycle regulating gene indicated that the strongest effect can be observed in the cerebral cortex. Taken together, radiation induced cell death of astrocytes in the cerebral cortex, and reduction in neurite length in maturating neurons, may interfere with a correct patterning of the brain and could jeopardize the formation of a correct neural network, leading to cognitive deficits in the mature brain.
[en] Embryonal cell carcinoma is one of the malignant germ cell tumors. This tumor is commonly encountered in the testis, however, it rarely occurs in the ovary. To the best of our knowledge, no imaging findings of ovarian embryonal cell carcinoma have previously been reported. We describe the US and MRI findings of such a case